TS-MUWSN: Time synchronization for mobile underwater sensor networks
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European Commission's projectNEXOS - Next generation, Cost-effective, Compact, Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management (EC-FP7-614102)
FIXO3 - Fixed Point Open Ocean Observatories Network (EC-FP7-312463)
Time synchronization is an important, yet challenging, problem in underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). This challenge can be attributed to: 1) messaging timestamping; 2) node mobility; and 3) Doppler scale effect. To mitigate these problems, we present an acoustic-based time-synchronization algorithm for UWSN, where we compare several message time-stamping algorithms in addition to different Doppler scale estimators. A synchronization system is based on a bidirectional message exchange between a reference node and a slave one, which has to be synchronized. Therefore, we take as reference the DA-Sync-like protocol (Liu et al., 2014), which takes into account node's movement by using first-order kinematic equations, which refine Doppler scale factor estimation accuracy, and result in better synchronization performance. In our study, we propose to modify both time-stamping and Doppler scale estimation procedures. Besides simulation, we also perform real tests in controlled underwater communication in a water test tank and a shallow-water test in the Mediterranean Sea.
CitationPallares, O., Bouvet, Pierre-jean, Del Rio, J. TS-MUWSN: Time synchronization for mobile underwater sensor networks. "IEEE journal of oceanic engineering", 1 Octubre 2016, vol. 41, núm. 4, p. 763-775.