Three-dimensional ruthenium-doped TiO2 sea urchins for enhanced visible-light-responsive H-2 production
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Three-dimensional (3D) monodispersed sea urchin-like Ru-doped rutile TiO2 hierarchical architectures composed of radially aligned, densely-packed TiO2 nanorods have been successfully synthesized via an acid-hydrothermal method at low temperature without the assistance of any structure-directing agent and post annealing treatment. The addition of a minuscule concentration of ruthenium dopants remarkably catalyzes the formation of the 3D urchin structure and drives the enhanced photocatalytic H-2 production under visible light irradiation, not possible on undoped and bulk rutile TiO2. Increasing ruthenium doping dosage not only increases the surface area up to 166 m(2) g(-1) but also induces enhanced photoresponse in the regime of visible and near infrared light. The doping introduces defect impurity levels, i.e. oxygen vacancy and under-coordinated Ti3+, significantly below the conduction band of TiO2, and ruthenium species act as electron donors/acceptors that accelerate the photogenerated hole and electron transfer and efficiently suppress the rapid charge recombination, therefore improving the visible-light-driven activity.
CitationThuy, N., Luo, S., Vovchok, D., Llorca, J., Sallis, S., Kattel, S., Xu, W., Piper, L., Poliansky, D., Senanayake, S.D., Stacchiola, D., Rodriguez, J. Three-dimensional ruthenium-doped TiO2 sea urchins for enhanced visible-light-responsive H-2 production. "Physical chemistry chemical physics", 21 Juny 2016, vol. 18, núm. 23, p. 15972-15979.