Efficiency of mechanical activation of inspiratory muscles in COPD using sample entropy
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Respiratory muscle dysfunction is a common problem in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has mostly been related to pulmonary hyperinflation [1, 2]. Associated diaphragm shortening and deleterious changes in the muscle force-length relationship cause a reduction in the muscles’ capacity to generate pressure, placing them at a mechanical disadvantage [1, 3]. Specifically, both inspiratory muscle strength and mechanical efficiency may be reduced in COPD patients [1, 4–6], although, at iso-volume, the contractile strength of the diaphragm in COPD is preserved or may even be improved in some cases . The ratio between transdiaphragmatic pressure and electrical diaphragm activity has been used as a measure of respiratory muscle efficiency [8, 9]. However, in clinical practice, it is complex to measure this parameter directly, as invasive measures are required and these are uncomfortable for patients . During contraction, respiratory muscle fibres vibrate laterally . These vibrations are related to the mechanical activation of these muscles and can be non-invasively recorded through accelerometers positioned on the surface of the skin, proximal to the muscles: this is called respiratory muscle mechanomyogram (MMG) [11–13]. The analysis of the mechanical activation of inspiratory muscles through the MMG might be a useful alternative approach for assessing respiratory muscles function in patients with COPD [13, 14]. MMG reflects the mechanical counterpart of the neural activity measured by electromyography. Respiratory muscle MMG provide some advantages over surface diaphragmatic electromyography with regards to simplicity of use. First of all, MMG recording is easy and simple to implement: MMG is acquired using a small accelerometer attached to the skin surface, whereas electromyography typically uses three electrodes. Secondly, as it is a mechanical signal, MMG is not susceptible to bioelectrical interference. Furthermore, the signal to noise ratio of MMG is typically higher than that of the electromyography, requiring less amplification and electrical shielding. In addition, the MMG recording does not require skin preparation and it is not influenced by changes in the skin impedance. The aim of the present study was to noninvasively evaluate the mechanical activation of inspiratory muscles and its efficiency (EMMG) during tidal volume breathing in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD. With this in mind, we investigated the peak inspiratory mouth pressure (IPpeak) and respiratory muscle MMG acquired under both quiet breathing (QB) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) conditions during an incremental respiratory flow protocol.
CitationSarlabous, L., Torres, A., Fiz, J., Gea, J., Martínez, J., Jane, R. Efficiency of mechanical activation of inspiratory muscles in COPD using sample entropy. "European respiratory journal", Desembre 2015, vol. 46, núm. 6, p. 1808-1811.