Glass transition, crystallization kinetics, and inter-conformer relaxation dynamics of amorphous mitotane and related compounds
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We employ differential scanning calorimetry, broadband dielectric spectroscopy and optical microscopy to investigate the glass transition, molecular relaxation dynamics, and isothermal recrystallization kinetics of amorphous mitotane, the only drug approved for the pharmacological treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. Amorphous mitotane displays a glass transition at Tg = 243 ± 1 K, characterized by relatively low fragility index of 68 ± 2. Besides the structural and Johari-Goldstein relaxations, amorphous mitotane displays an intramolecular relaxation with activation energy of 25 ± 1 kJ mol-1. The same relaxation process, with virtually the same activation energy and relaxation times, is observed in the closely-related o,p’-dichlorobenzophenone compound, which allows identifying it as the rotation of the chlorobenzene ring with the chlorine closest to the central carbon. Such conformational relaxation is active at human body temperature, and may thus be potentially relevant for the mechanism of action of the drug. Our study shows that the comparative study of the relaxation map of related molecular species is a powerful tool to identify and classify secondary relaxation processes. The amorphous drug is found to be unstable against recrystallization at as well as slightly below room temperature, and to display-two-dimensional growth with only sporadic nucleation, characterized by an Avrami kinetic exponent of 2.05 ± 0.05. The kinetic stability of the amorphous form of mitotane, observed at room temperature in micellar formulations, is therefore limited to the nanoconfined sample and is not observed in the bulk compound.
CitationRomanini, M.; Pérez, A.; Macovez, R. Glass transition, crystallization kinetics, and inter-conformer relaxation dynamics of amorphous mitotane and related compounds. "International journal of pharmaceutics", 15 Desembre 2022, vol. 629, núm. article 122390, p. 1-10.