A review of technologies for closing the P loop in agriculture runoff: contributing to the transition towards a circular economy
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Phosphorus (P) scarcity and the environmental hazards posed by P discharges have triggered the development of technologies for P sequestration and removal from waste streams. Agriculture runoff usually has P concentrations high enough to contribute to eutrophication and harmful algal blooms, but they are still too low for successful P removal with conventional technologies commonly applied in wastewater treatment. For this reason, realistic approaches to remove P from agricultural waste streams mainly include natural assimilation and constructed wetlands. Although these technologies have been implemented for some time, P removal is not always achieved to the needed extent and sometimes sufficient surface areas required are unattainable. Phosphorus sorbing materials, especially materials rich in calcium, have emerged to increase the removal potential of runoff treatment wetlands and at the same time sequester P for potential subsequent reuse. This paper analyses the current strategies and technologies for P removal and reuse from agriculture surface runoff streams taking a circular economy approach. It particularly addresses the current state of calcium rich materials commonly used for P removal that have also shown positive results as fertilizers or soil.
CitationAltamira, B. [et al.]. A review of technologies for closing the P loop in agriculture runoff: contributing to the transition towards a circular economy. "Ecological engineering", Abril 2022, vol. 177, p. 106571:1-106571:14.