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dc.contributor.authorSchneider, Rochelle
dc.contributor.authorMasselot, Pierre
dc.contributor.authorVicedo Cabrera, Ana M.
dc.contributor.authorSera, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorBlangiardo, Marta
dc.contributor.authorJorba Casellas, Oriol
dc.contributor.authorGuevara Vilardell, Marc
dc.contributor.otherBarcelona Supercomputing Center
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-25T14:44:03Z
dc.date.available2022-02-25T14:44:03Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.citationSchneider, R. [et al.]. Differential impact of government lockdown policies on reducing air pollution levels and related mortality in Europe. "Scientific Reports", 2022, vol. 12, núm. 726.
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/363111
dc.description.abstractPrevious studies have reported a decrease in air pollution levels following the enforcement of lockdown measures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these investigations were mostly based on simple pre-post comparisons using past years as a reference and did not assess the role of different policy interventions. This study contributes to knowledge by quantifying the association between specific lockdown measures and the decrease in NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 levels across 47 European cities. It also estimated the number of avoided deaths during the period. This paper used new modelled data from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) to define business-as-usual and lockdown scenarios of daily air pollution trends. This study applies a spatio-temporal Bayesian non-linear mixed effect model to quantify the changes in pollutant concentrations associated with the stringency indices of individual policy measures. The results indicated non-linear associations with a stronger decrease in NO2 compared to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at very strict policy levels. Differences across interventions were also identified, specifically the strong effects of actions linked to school/workplace closure, limitations on gatherings, and stay-at-home requirements. Finally, the observed decrease in pollution potentially resulted in hundreds of avoided deaths across Europe.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research had free and open access to all data sources. The work described in this paper has received funding from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) on behalf the European Union through commercial contract Ref. CAMS_95p. Several CAMS Regional Models of the CAMS_50 Service contributed to the present work (CHIMERE, LOTOS-EUROS, MINNI, MOCAGE, MONARCH, SILAM) under CAMS_71 coordination. CAMS_COP066 service provided the lockdown emissions information. O.J. and M.G. thankfully acknowledge the computer resources at Marenostrum and the technical support provided by Barcelona Supercomputing Center (RES-AECT-2020-1-0007). SILAM model runs was also funded by Finnish Academy GLORIA project (No310372). The study was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Project Exhaustion (Grant ID: 820655).
dc.format.extent13 p.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherNature Research
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 Spain
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/es/
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectÀrees temàtiques de la UPC::Desenvolupament humà i sostenible::Degradació ambiental::Contaminació atmosfèrica
dc.subject.lcshCOVID-19 (Disease)
dc.subject.lcshAir--Pollution
dc.subject.otherAtmospheric chemistry
dc.subject.otherEnvironmental monitoring
dc.subject.otherRisk factors
dc.subject.otherScientific data
dc.titleDifferential impact of government lockdown policies on reducing air pollution levels and related mortality in Europe
dc.typeArticle
dc.subject.lemacCOVID-19 (Malaltia)
dc.subject.lemacConfinament
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41598-021-04277-6
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer Reviewed
dc.relation.publisherversionhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-04277-6
dc.rights.accessOpen Access
dc.description.versionPostprint (published version)
local.citation.publicationNameScientific Reports
local.citation.volume12
local.citation.number726
dc.description.authorship"Article signat per 18 autors/es: Rochelle Schneider, Pierre Masselot, Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera, Francesco Sera, Marta Blangiardo, Chiara Forlani, John Douros, Oriol Jorba, Mario Adani, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Florian Couvidat, Joaquim Arteta, Blandine Raux, Marc Guevara, Augustin Colette, Jérôme Barré, Vincent-Henri Peuch & Antonio Gasparrini "


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