Real-time interpolation of global ionospheric maps by means of sparse representation
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European Commission's projectPITHIA-NRF - Plasmasphere Ionosphere Thermosphere Integrated Research Environment and Access services: a Network of Research Facilities (EC-H2020-101007599)
In this paper, we propose a method for the generation of real-time global ionospheric map (RT-GIM) of vertical total electron content (VTEC) from GNSS measurements. The need for interpolation arises from the fact that the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) measurements from satellites to stations are not distributed uniformly over the ionosphere, leaving unfilled gaps at oceans or poles. The method we propose is based on using a high-quality historical database of post-processed GIMs that comprises more than two solar cycles, calculates the GIM by weighted superposition on a subset of the database with the compatible solar condition. The linear combination of GIMs in the database was obtained by minimizing a ℓ2 distance between VTEC measurements at the IPPs and the VTECs from the database, adding a ℓ1 penalization on the weights to assure a sparse solution. The process uses a Sun-fixed geomagnetic reference frame. This method uses the atomic decomposition/least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), which will be denoted as atomic decomposition interpolator of GIMs (ADIGIM). As the computation is done in milliseconds, the interpolation is performed in real time. In this work, two products were developed, denoted as UADG and UARG, the UADG in real time and UARG with a latency of 24 h to benefit from the availability of a greater number of stations. The altimeter JASON3 VTEC measurements were used as reference. The quality of interpolated RT-GIMs from day 258 of 2019 to 155 of the year 2020 is compared with other RT/non-RT GIM products such as those from International GNSS Service (IGS), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) and others. The RT ADIGIM performance proved to be better, nearly as good as the rapid or final GIMs computed retrospectively with delays of hours to days. Besides, the non-RT ADIGIM quality is as good or better than most GIM products. The oceanic regions have been included in the assessment which showed that ADIGIM interpolation gives the best estimation (referred to JASON3). The developed method, UADG, will constitute the next-generation UPC RT-GIM, and also UARG will improve the current product UQRG (the current UPC rapid GIM product computed retrospectively) due to its complementary information.
CitationYang, H. [et al.]. Real-time interpolation of global ionospheric maps by means of sparse representation. "Journal of geodesy", 12 Juny 2021, vol. 95, article 71, p. 1-20.
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