Ca2+-CaM dependent inactivation of RyR2 underlies Ca2+ alternans in intact heart
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Rationale: Ca2+ alternans plays an essential role in cardiac alternans that can lead to ventricular fibrillation, but the mechanism underlying Ca2+ alternans remains undefined. Increasing evidence suggests that Ca2+ alternans results from alternations in the inactivation of cardiac RyR2 (ryanodine receptor 2). However, what inactivates RyR2 and how RyR2 inactivation leads to Ca2+ alternans are unknown. Objective: To determine the role of CaM (calmodulin) on Ca2+ alternans in intact working mouse hearts. Methods and Results: We used an in vivo local gene delivery approach to alter CaM function by directly injecting adenoviruses expressing CaM-wild type, a loss-of-function CaM mutation, CaM (1–4), and a gain-of-function mutation, CaM-M37Q, into the anterior wall of the left ventricle of RyR2 wild type or mutant mouse hearts. We monitored Ca2+ transients in ventricular myocytes near the adenovirus-injection sites in Langendorff-perfused intact working hearts using confocal Ca2+ imaging. We found that CaM-wild type and CaM-M37Q promoted Ca2+ alternans and prolonged Ca2+ transient recovery in intact RyR2 wild type and mutant hearts, whereas CaM (1–4) exerted opposite effects. Altered CaM function also affected the recovery from inactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current but had no significant impact on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content. Furthermore, we developed a novel numerical myocyte model of Ca2+ alternans that incorporates Ca2+-CaM-dependent regulation of RyR2 and the L-type Ca2+ channel. Remarkably, the new model recapitulates the impact on Ca2+ alternans of altered CaM and RyR2 functions under 9 different experimental conditions. Our simulations reveal that diastolic cytosolic Ca2+ elevation as a result of rapid pacing triggers Ca2+-CaM dependent inactivation of RyR2. The resultant RyR2 inactivation diminishes sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, which, in turn, reduces diastolic cytosolic Ca2+, leading to alternations in diastolic cytosolic Ca2+, RyR2 inactivation, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release (ie, Ca2+ alternans). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that inactivation of RyR2 by Ca2+-CaM is a major determinant of Ca2+ alternans, making Ca2+-CaM dependent regulation of RyR2 an important therapeutic target for cardiac alternans.
CitationGuo, W. [et al.]. Ca2+-CaM dependent inactivation of RyR2 underlies Ca2+ alternans in intact heart. "Circulation research", 19 Febrer 2021, vol. 128, núm. 4, p. e63-e83.
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