The tryptophan system in cocaine-induced depression
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Rights accessOpen Access
Major depression disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent psychiatric comorbid condition in cocaine use disorder (CUD). The comorbid MDD might be primary-MDD (CUD-primary-MDD) or cocaine-induced MDD (CUD-induced-MDD), and their accurate diagnoses and treatment is a challenge for improving prognoses. This study aimed to assess the tryptophan/serotonin (Trp/5-HT) system with the acute tryptophan depletion test (ATD), and the kynurenine pathway in subjects with CUD-primary-MDD, CUD-induced-MDD, MDD and healthy controls. The ATD was performed with a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled design. Markers of enzymatic activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and kynureninase were also established. Following ATD, we observed a decrease in Trp levels in all groups. Comparison between CUD-induced-MDD and MDD revealed significant differences in 5-HT plasma concentrations (512 + 332 ng/mL vs. 107 + 127 ng/mL, p = 0.039) and the Kyn/5-HT ratio (11 + 15 vs. 112 + 136; p = 0.012), whereas there were no differences between CUD-primary-MDD and MDD. Effect size coefficients show a gradient for all targeted markers (d range 0.72–1.67). Results suggest different pathogenesis for CUD-induced-MDD, with lower participation of the tryptophan system, probably more related to other neurotransmitter pathways and accordingly suggesting the need for a different pharmacological treatment approach.
CitationFonseca, F. [et al.]. The tryptophan system in cocaine-induced depression. "Journal of clinical medicine", 19 Desembre 2020, vol. 9, núm. 12.