Determination of the essential work of fracture at high strain rates
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During the last decades, the use of ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) has increased as its favorable ratio between strength and mass allows the design of lighter body-in-white while maintaining passenger safety. Modeling impact loads of components made of UHS steel requires reliable descriptions of the material deformation and fracture behavior. Traditional stress or strain based fracture criteria are used in finite element modeling. A different approach in modeling fracture in components uses the fracture energy as a model parameter. Fracture toughness is difficult to measure in thin sheets; a method termed Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) provides the possibility to determine the fracture toughness in sheet metal. With knowledge of the fracture toughness the understanding of fracture behavior and crack propagation in ultra-high strength steel can be increased. The obtained EWF is related to the fracture energy and can be used in numerical models as a material parameter. In the present work results from preliminary testing are shown and a discussion on cross-head speed and strain rate in the critical specimen cross section is given. The use of digital image correlation provides information about the displacement field in the vicinity of the notch and hence about the strain- and strain rate distribution. Furthermore, the difficulties in reliable measurement of force and elongation in high speed tensile testing machines are elucidated. Issues encountered during the development of the high-speed DENT specimen are not limited to the specific geometry presented in this paper. The present work aims at the development of a test specimen to obtain the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) at high test speed. This work contributes to the overall goal to model fracture behavior and crack propagation, dependent on the strain rate. For the investigation, a high-speed tensile testing machine equipped with an in-house developed load cell and an optical elongation measurement system was used with a high-speed camera to obtain data for digital image correlation.
CitationFrómeta, D.; Casellas, D.; Jonsén, P. Determination of the essential work of fracture at high strain rates. A: International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel. "6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017". 2017, p. 1-9. ISBN 978-1-935117-66-7.