Adaptative Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation in Primary Frequency Response Duties
Tutor / director / evaluatorDíaz González, Francisco
Document typeMaster thesis
Rights accessOpen Access
This document represents the report from a project carried out at Starke Energy and reflects the accomplishments and insights derived from it. The main objective is to evaluate the capacity degradation of lithium-ion batteries working on primary frequency response duties in order to assess their economic and environmental viability. The literature review shows that such indicators are lacking, and they are key for evaluating the feasibility of a disruptive technology, as are stationary lithium-ion batteries, in emerging markets flexibility markets, as are the Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) markets that are opening for aggregated participation of decentralized energy assets. For that matter, a an adaptative tool is built to assess the amount of equivalent cycles (that is, the cycles corresponding to the conditions detailed in the manufacturer datasheet) spent for every day that any lithium-ion battery operates in the FCR markets. The result is that lithiumion batteries spend 2 equivalent cycles for every day of FCR operation, which would allow these assets to provide primary frequency response for at least 8 years. The economic implications of such result confirms the viability of lithium-ion battery participation on FCR markets given the right conditions (low battery price and high flexibility price), while highlighting the strong positive environmental impact of the penetration of batteries in primary frequency response services, displacing fossil fuels out of the energy mix and saving almost 1 ton of CO2 equivalent emissions for every hour that a Megawatt of batteries participate in the FCR market.
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