3D printed soft surgical planning prototype for a biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma
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Biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue malignant musculoskeletal tumor which is located in the biliary tract. Although this tumor represents less than 1% of the total amount of childhood cancers, when localized, a >70% overall 5-year survival rate, the resection is clinically challenging and complications might exist during the biliary obstruction. Although surgery remains a mainstay, complete tumor resection is generally difficult to achieve without mutilation and severe long-term sequelae. Therefore, manufacturing multi-material 3D surgical planning prototypes of the case provides a great opportunity for surgeons to learn beforehand what they can expect. Additionally, practicing before the operation enhances the probability of success. That is why different compositions of materials have been characterized to match the mechanical properties of the liver. To do this, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests and Shore hardness tests have been carried out. Amongst the material samples produced, 6%wt PVA (poly vinyl alcohol)/1%wt PHY (Phytagel)-1FT (Freeze-Thaw cycles) and 1%wt agarose appear as the best options for mimicking the liver tissue in terms of viscoelasticity. Regarding the Shore hardness, the best solution is 1%wt agarose. Additionally, a surgical planning prototype using this last material mentioned was manufactured and validated using a CT (Computed Tomography) scanner. In most of the structures the difference between the 3D model and the organ in terms of dimensions is less than 3.35 mm, which represents a low dimensional error, around 1%. On the other hand, the total manufacturing cost of the 3D physical model was €513 which is relatively low in comparison with other technologies.
CitationTejo, A. [et al.]. 3D printed soft surgical planning prototype for a biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma. "Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials", 11 Maig 2020, vol. 109, p. 103844/1-103844/11.