Bounds on the possible evolution of the gravitational constant from cosmological type-Ia supernovae
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Recent high-redshift type-Ia supernovae results can be used to set new bounds on a possible variation of the gravitational constant G. If the local value of G at the space-time location of distant supernovae is different, it would change both the kinetic energy release and the amount of 56Ni synthesized in the supernova outburst. Both effects are related to a change in the Chandrasekhar mass MCh∝G-3/2. In addition, the integrated variation of G with time would also affect the cosmic evolution and therefore the luminosity distance relation. We show that the later effect in the magnitudes of type-Ia supernovae is typically several times smaller than the change produced by the corresponding variation of the Chandrasekhar mass. We investigate in a consistent way how a varying G could modify the Hubble diagram of type-Ia supernovae and how these results can be used to set upper bounds to a hypothetical variation of G. We find G/G0≲1.1 and Ġ/G≲10-11yr-1 at redshifts z≃0.5. These new bounds extend the currently available constraints on the evolution of G all the way from solar and stellar distances to typical scales of Gpc/Gyr, i.e., by more than 15 orders of magnitude in time and distance.
CitationGaztañaga, E. [et al.]. Bounds on the possible evolution of the gravitational constant from cosmological type-Ia supernovae. "Physical review D", Gener 2002, vol. 65, núm. 2, p. 23506-23514.