PETGEM: A parallel code for 3D CSEM forward modeling using edge finite elements
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We present the capabilities and results of the Parallel Edge-based Tool for Geophysical Electromagnetic modeling (PETGEM), as well as the physical and numerical foundations upon which it has been developed. PETGEM is an open-source and distributed parallel Python code for fast and highly accurate modeling of 3D marine controlled-source electromagnetic (3D CSEM) problems. We employ the Nédélec Edge Finite Element Method (EFEM) which offers a good trade-off between accuracy and number of degrees of freedom, while naturally supporting unstructured tetrahedral meshes. We have particularised this new modeling tool to the 3D CSEM problem for infinitesimal point dipoles asumming arbitrarily isotropic media for low-frequencies approximations. In order to avoid source-singularities, PETGEM solves the frequency-domain Maxwell's equations of the secondary electric field, and the primary electric field is calculated analytically for homogeneous background media. We assess the PETGEM accuracy using classical tests with known analytical solutions as well as recent published data of real life geological scenarios. This assessment proves that this new modeling tool reproduces expected accurate solutions in the former tests, and its flexibility on realistic 3D electromagnetic problems. Furthermore, an automatic mesh adaptation strategy for a given frequency and specific source position is presented. We also include a scalability study based on fundamental metrics for high-performance computing (HPC) architectures.
CitationCastillo, O.; de la Puente, J.; Cela, J. PETGEM: A parallel code for 3D CSEM forward modeling using edge finite elements. "Computers and geosciences", Octubre 2018, vol. 119, p. 123-136.