Power management in sensing subsystem of wireless multimedia sensor networks
Document typePart of book or chapter of book
PublisherInTech — Open Access Company
Rights accessOpen Access
A wireless sensor network consists of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area for monitoring physical phenomena like temperature, humidity, vibrations, seismic events, and so on. Typically, a sensor node is a tiny device that includes three basic components: a sensing subsystem for data acquisition from the physical surrounding environment, a processing subsystem for local data processing and storage, and a wireless communication subsystem for data transmission. In addition, a power source supplies the energy needed by the device to perform the programmed task. This power source often consists of a battery with a limited energy budget. In addition, it is usually impossible or inconvenient to recharge the battery, because nodes are deployed in a hostile or unpractical environment. On the other hand, the sensor network should have a lifetime long enough to fulfill the application requirements. Accordingly, energy conservation in nodes and maximization of network lifetime are commonly recognized as a key challenge in the design and implementation of WSNs. Experimental measurements have shown that generally data transmission is very expensive in terms of energy consumption, while data processing consumes significantly less (Raghunathan et al., 2002). The energy cost of transmitting a single bit of information is approximately the same as that needed for processing a thousand operations in a typical sensor node (Pottie & Kaiser, 2000). The energy consumption of the sensing subsystem depends on the specific sensor type. In some cases of scalar sensors, it is negligible with respect to the energy consumed by the processing and, above all, the communication subsystems. In other cases, the energy expenditure for data sensing may be comparable to, or even greater (in the case of multimedia sensing) than the energy needed for data transmission. In general, energy-saving techniques focus on two subsystems: the communication subsystem (i.e., energy management is taken into account in the operations of each single node, as well as in the design of networking protocols), and the sensing subsystem (i.e., techniques are used to reduce the amount or frequency of energy-expensive samples).
CitationAlaei, M.; Barceló, J. Power management in sensing subsystem of wireless multimedia sensor networks. A: "Wireless communications and networks: recent advances". Rijeka: InTech — Open Access Company, 2012, p. 549-570.