A study of principle stress rotation on granular soils using DEM simulation of hollow cylinder test
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This study presents a numerical modelling of HCT (Hollow Cylinder Test) using DEM (Discrete Element Method) by developing of TRUBAL code on granular soils. Due to high expenditures of HCT, a verified numerical modelling of this test was developed. In addition, this numerical model can be used to address the gap in understanding the relationship between the particle-scale interactions and the overall material response. In the introduced numerical model (HCTBALL), plane and cylindrical walls were defined to apply the boundary forces and stresses. Also, an efficient method was presented to apply the torque. The displacements of inner and outer walls were interdependent while applying the torsion to control the intermediate principal stress parameter (b). To verify the model, the results of experimental hollow cylinder tests on Firoozkooh sand under monotonic loading and drained condition were employed. Therefore, the simulations were compared qualitatively with experiments to verify the presented model. It is observed that the deviatoric stress at failure, increased with a decreasing rate by increasing the confining pressure. By increasing the rotation angle of principal stress direction, the difference between deviatoric stresses in specific confining pressures was decreased.