3D modelling of material flow in friction stir welding using movable cellular automaton method
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The paper is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the peculiarities of material flow taking place in friction stir welding (FSW). The investigation was based on 3D computer simulation by the movable cellular automaton (MCA) method, which is a representative of the particle methods in mechanics of materials. Usually, material flow in FSW is simulated based on computational fluid mechanics, which assumes that the material is a continuum and does not take into account the material structure. MCA considers a material as an ensemble of bonded particles. Breaking of inter-particle bonds and formation of new bonds enables simulation of crack nucleation and healing, as well as mas mixing and microwelding. The simulation results showed that using pins of simple shape (cylinder, cone, pyramid) without shoulder results in small scattered displacements of the plasticised material in the workpiece thickness direction. Nevertheless, the optimal ratio of the longitudinal velocity to the rotational speed allows transporting of the welded material around the pin several times and producing the joint of good quality. Applying additional ultrasonic vibration to the pin may lead to better mixing of the plasticized material behind the pin.