New instrument concepts for ocean sensing: analysis of the PAU-radiometer
PublisherIEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
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Sea surface salinity can be remotely measured by means of L-band microwave radiometry. However, the brightness temperature also depends on the sea surface temperature and on the sea state, which is probably today one of the driving factors in the salinity retrieval error budgets of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the NASA-Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales Aquarius/SAC-D mission. This paper describes the Passive Advanced Unit (PAU) for ocean monitoring. PAU combines in a single instrument three different sensors: an L-band radiometer with digital beamforming (DBF) (PAU-RAD) to measure the brightness temperature of the sea at different incidence angles simultaneously, a global positioning system (GPS) reflectometer [PAU-reflectometer of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS-R)] also with DBF to measure the sea state from the delay-Doppler maps, and two infrared radiometers to provide sea surface temperature estimates. The key characteristic of this instrument is that both PAU-RAD and the PAU-GNSS/R share completely the RF/IF front-end, and analog-to-digital converters. Since in order to track the GPS-reflected signal, it is not possible to chop the antenna signal as in a Dicke radiometer, a new radiometer topology has been devised which makes uses of two receiving chains and a correlator, which has the additional advantage that both PAU-RAD and PAU-GNSS/R can be operated continuously and simultaneously to perform the sea-state corrections of the brightness temperature. This paper presents the main characteristics of the different PAU subsystems, and analyzes in detail the PAU-radiometer concept.
CitationCamps, A.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Ramos-Perez, I.; Marchan-Hernandez, J. F.; Izquierdo, B.; Rodriguez-Alvarez, N. New instrument concepts for ocean sensing: analysis of the PAU-radiometer. IEEE Transactions on geoscience and remote sensing, 2007, vol. 45, núm. 10, p. 3180-3192.