On the TGF/lightning ratio asymmetry
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Africa is one of the most productive lightning regions on Earth, yet it has a lower TGF-to-lightning ratio especially compared with Central America. In this paper we have analyzed the global distribution of different meteorological parameters in order to explain the TGF/lightning ratio asymmetry. We show here that a drier surface and larger CAPE in Africa may produce thunderstorms with intense electric charge regions but elevated in the atmosphere and closer to each other, which allows for higher flash rates and less energetic, shorter and smaller flashes. The results we present here suggest that continental thunderstorms in Africa more rarely fulfill the lightning and thundercloud requirements for TGF production inferred from observations and models.
CitationFabro, F. [et al.]. On the TGF/lightning ratio asymmetry. "Journal of geophysical research: atmospheres", Vol. 124, No 12, pp. 6518-6531