Procedural uncertainties of Proctor compaction tests applied on MSWI bottom ash
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MSWI bottom ash is a well-graded highly compactable material that can be used as a road material in unbound pavements. Achieving the compactness assumed in the design of the pavement is of primary concern to ensure long term structural stability. Regulations on road construction in a number of EU countries rely on standard tests originally developed for natural aggregates, which may not be appropriate to accurately assess MSWI bottom ash. This study is intended to assist in consistently assessing MSWI bottom ash compaction by means of the Proctor method. This test is routinely applied to address unbound road materials and suggests two methods. Compaction parameters show a marked procedural dependency due to the particle morphology and weak particle strength of ash. Re-compacting a single batch sample to determine Proctor curves is a common practise that turns out to overvalue optimum moisture contents and maximum dry densities. This could result in wet-side compactions not meeting stiffness requirements. Inaccurate moisture content measurements during testing may also induce erroneous determinations of compaction parameters. The role of a number of physical properties of MSWI bottom ash in compaction is also investigated.
CitationIzquierdo, M.; Querol, X.; Vazquez, E. Procedural uncertainties of Proctor compaction tests applied on MSWI bottom ash. "Journal of hazardous materials", 28 Febrer 2011, vol. 186, núm. 2-3, p. 1639-1644.
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