Feasibility and market assessment for EV scheduling and aggregation in European countries.
Tutor / director / evaluatorSumper, Andreas
Document typeMaster thesis
Rights accessOpen Access
Energy system has been going through a revolutionary transformation over the past years. The rising adoption of unpredictable, decentralised renewable energy sources is said to accelerate in the next decades. Variable renewable electricity production in many different locations, can often lead to unexpected and unsought for deviations of gird parameters: frequency and voltage. unsought for devi ations of gird parameters: frequency and voltage, or even congestion of the system. Thus, decentralised electricity system would have a surpassing need of flexibility of the system, which could assure proper regulation of frequency and voltage when needed. The consumption of electricity is also viable and not utterly predictable. To avoid the congestion of electrical grid the demand side response concept has been sprouting. One of the new concepts of demand side response measures is aggregation. Aggregated load regulation envisions gathering and managing numerous small loads, in a way that could stop deviations of frequency and voltage in the system or avoid congestion , without bringing any inconveniences for the owner of the load. EVs while charging, are t hose loads that are often mentioned as aggragatable. With the emerge of massive adoption of Electric Vehicle, secondary uses of it are being questioned. One of them is the idea of balancing the ever changing frequency and voltage in the grid with usage of flexibility created by creating various patterns of charging an electric vehicle. This process is known as Smart Charging. This study integrate s previously mentioned innovations of energy system and analyse the potential of aggregation of electric vehicle s for the purpose of providing flexibility to the electricity system. The thesis will be a technical and economic analysis of the possibility of unlocking this potential in Europe. The regulatory and technical aspects of possible demand side response aggr egation development are presented in the thesis , along with the analysis of Electric Vehicles market and its potential. Thereafter, one exemplary market is analysed further, through developed optimisation model, which allows to assess the value of most imp ortant factors for the aggregator. Three key changing variables are considered in the scheme of charge, those are : the targeted group of clients, the power of the used charger, and the scheme of charging. To assess the importance of those variables the stream of revenues as well as the environmental benefits in the form of potential CO 2 emissions savings are analysed against the variables. E 2 F easibility and market assessment for EV scheduling and aggregation in E uropean countries 2 The major aim and finding of this thesis is to answer the question whether it is plausible to profitab ly develop grid balancing with smart charging of electric vehicles in European Free Trade Association membership countries. The reader will only get to know the answer to that question after flicking through the pages of this paper