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dc.contributor.authorPérez Díaz de Cerio, David
dc.contributor.authorHernandez Solana, Angela
dc.contributor.authorValdovinos, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorValenzuela González, José Luis
dc.contributor.otherUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions
dc.date.accessioned2018-07-31T10:10:42Z
dc.date.available2018-07-31T10:10:42Z
dc.date.issued2018-03-20
dc.identifier.citationPerez, D., Hernandez, A., Valdovinos, A., Valenzuela, J. A low-cost tracking system for running race applications based on bluetooth low energy technology. "Sensors", 20 Març 2018, vol. 18, núm. 3, p. 1-17.
dc.identifier.issn1424-8220
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/120339
dc.description.abstractTiming points used in running races and other competition events are generally based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. Athletes’ times are calculated via passive RFID tags and reader kits. Specifically, the reader infrastructure needed is complex and requires the deployment of a mat or ramps which hide the receiver antennae under them. Moreover, with the employed tags, it is not possible to transmit additional and dynamic information such as pulse or oximetry monitoring, alarms, etc. In this paper we present a system based on two low complex schemes allowed in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE): the non-connectable undirected advertisement process and a modified version of scannable undirected advertisement process using the new capabilities present in Bluetooth 5. After fully describing the system architecture, which allows full real-time position monitoring of the runners using mobile phones on the organizer side and BLE sensors on the participants’ side, we derive the mobility patterns of runners and capacity requirements, which are determinant for evaluating the performance of the proposed system. They have been obtained from the analysis of the real data measured in the last Barcelona Marathon. By means of simulations, we demonstrate that, even under disadvantageous conditions (50% error ratio), both schemes perform reliably and are able to detect the 100% of the participants in all the cases. The cell coverage of the system needs to be adjusted when non-connectable process is considered. Nevertheless, through simulation and experimental, we show that the proposed scheme based on the new events available in Bluetooth 5 is clearly the best implementation alternative for all the cases, no matter the coverage area and the runner speed. The proposal widely exceeds the detection requirements of the real scenario, surpassing the measured peaks of 20 sensors per second incoming in the coverage area, moving at speeds that range from 1.5 m/s to 6.25 m/s. The designed real test-bed shows that the scheme is able to detect 72 sensors below 600 ms, fulfilling comfortably the requirements determined for the intended application. The main disadvantage of this system would be that the sensors are active, but we have proved that its consumption can be so low (9.5 µA) that, with a typical button cell, the sensor battery life would be over 10,000 h of use.
dc.format.extent17 p.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 Spain
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/es/
dc.subjectÀrees temàtiques de la UPC::Enginyeria de la telecomunicació::Radiocomunicació i exploració electromagnètica::Radiodifusió per ràdio
dc.subject.lcshRadio frequency identification systems
dc.subject.lcshBluetooth technology
dc.subject.otherBLE
dc.subject.otherRFID
dc.subject.otherRunning races
dc.subject.otherTracking
dc.subject.otherMonitoring
dc.subject.otherBluetooth 5
dc.titleA low-cost tracking system for running race applications based on bluetooth low energy technology
dc.typeArticle
dc.subject.lemacSistemes d'identificació per radiofreqüència
dc.subject.lemacBluetooth (Tecnologia)
dc.contributor.groupUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya. WiComTec - Grup de recerca en Tecnologies i Comunicacions Sense Fils
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/s18030922
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer Reviewed
dc.relation.publisherversionhttp://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/18/3/922
dc.rights.accessOpen Access
drac.iddocument23182225
dc.description.versionPostprint (published version)
upcommons.citation.authorPerez, D., Hernandez, A., Valdovinos, A., Valenzuela, J.
upcommons.citation.publishedtrue
upcommons.citation.publicationNameSensors
upcommons.citation.volume18
upcommons.citation.number3
upcommons.citation.startingPage1
upcommons.citation.endingPage17


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Except where otherwise noted, content on this work is licensed under a Creative Commons license: Attribution 3.0 Spain