Analysis of the effect of clock drifts on frequency regulation and power sharing in inverter-based islanded microgrids
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Local hardware clocks in physically distributed computation devices hardly ever agree because clocks drift apart and the drift can be different for each device. This paper analyses the effect that local clock drifts have in the parallel operation of voltage source inverters (VSIs) in islanded microgrids (MG). The state-of-the-art control policies for frequency regulation and active power sharing in VSIs-based MGs are reviewed and selected prototype policies are then re-formulated in terms of clock drifts. Next, steady-state properties for these policies are analyzed. For each of the policies, analytical expressions are developed to provide an exact quantification of the impact that drifts have on frequency and active power equilibrium points. In addition, a closed-loop model that accommodates all the policies is derived, and the stability of the equilibrium points is characterized in terms of the clock drifts. Finally, the implementation of the analyzed policies in a laboratory MG provides experimental results that confirm the theoretical analysis.
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CitationMarti, P., Torres, J., Rosero, C. X., Velasco, M., Miret, J., Castilla, M. Analysis of the effect of clock drifts on frequency regulation and power sharing in inverter-based islanded microgrids. "IEEE transactions on power electronics", 12 Febrer 2018, vol. 33, núm. 12, p. 10363-10379.