|dc.description.abstract||In areas of wildland-urban interface (WUI), especially residential developments, it is very
common to see liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tanks, particularly with a higher ratio of
propane, in surface installations serving homes. The most common tanks are between 1 and 5
m3 of capacity, but smaller ones of less than 1 m3 are more frequent. In case of accident,
installations may be subject to fires and explosions, especially in those circumstances where
legal and normative requirements allow very close exposure to flames from vegetable fuel
near LPG tanks.
In this project, it is intended to do a comprehensive diagnosis of the problem, addressing
the compilation of information on real risk scenarios in historical fires. First, a preliminary
presentation of the properties and characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas will be exposed.
Its physical and chemical properties, production methodology, pressure and temperature
diagrams and important considerations will be defined when using this type of substances in a
storage tank of a certain volume.
Next, a review of the situation of the existence of LPG tanks in the urban forest interfaces
will be exposed. In this case, the main accidents caused by problems with the storage of LPG
will be analyzed taking into account the relevance of BLEVE events in this type of incidents. To
do this, the main scenarios that could take place in the event of a fire will be presented.
Next, the existing legislation on the storage of LPG in these environments in some
Mediterranean countries will be studied. In order to develop a comprehensive analysis, the
main safety measures and distances will be considered, as well as the awareness of the
possibility of vegetation material in the vicinity of LPG storage tanks, which is the main
problem that will arise in a possible BLEVE scenario in case of fire. To finalize and facilitate
understanding, a comparative table will be included with the aim of visualizing the main
advantages and legislative deficiencies between the different countries.
Following, the state of the art in terms of modelling LPG accidents at the WUI will be
reviewed. Trying to simulate and predict this type of scenarios, it will see the models normally
chosen to obtain the tolerable values selected and the answers obtained in each case.
Finally, several fire scenarios will be simulated by means of a CFD tool (FDS, Fire Dynamics
Simulator). In these simulations, the wind velocity and the distance of the combustible vegetal
mass to the tank will be controlled in a WUI fire in which there is a tank of fixed dimensions.
The temperature and the heat flow in each of the scenarios will be obtained, and the
differences among the location of the sensors and the characteristics of the scenario will be
As a conclusion, it has been observed that there is a great amount of variables that are
not contemplated by the regulatory organisms and that the existing legislation does not
guarantee the safety of the population in this type of environment. From the simulations
results, variables as temperature should be studied for further characterizations.