Evaluation of the influence of surfactants in the bioaccumulation kinetics of sulfamethoxazole and oxazepam in benthic invertebrates
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The potential ecotoxicological effects of mixtures of contaminants in the aquatic environment are generating a global concern. Benthic invertebrates, such as the crustacean Gammarus fossarum, are key in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and are frequently used as sentinel species of water quality status. The aim of this work was to study the effects of a mixture of the most frequently detected surfactants in the bioconcentration kinetics of two pharmaceuticals in G. fossarum, evaluating their potential enhancing or suppressing effects. Laboratory exposure experiments for both pharmaceuticals and surfactants (concentration ratio 1:25) were set up for two individual compounds, the anxiolytic oxazepam and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Gammarid samples were processed using microQuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction. Pharmaceuticals concentration in the organisms was followed-up by means of nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Results indicated a similar mode of action of the surfactants in the bioconcentration kinetics of both drugs, decreasing the accumulation rate in the organism. Oxazepam showed a higher accumulation potential than sulfamethoxazole in all cases. Depuration experiments for oxazepam also demonstrated the high depurative capacity of gammarids, eliminating > 50% of the concentration of oxazepam in < 6 h.
CitationGarcia, M., Sordet, M., Bulete, A., Garric, J., Vulliet, E. Evaluation of the influence of surfactants in the bioaccumulation kinetics of sulfamethoxazole and oxazepam in benthic invertebrates. "Science of the total environment", Agost 2017, vol. 592, p. 554-564.