Affected pathways and transcriptional regulators in gene expression response to an ultra-marathon trail: Global and independent activity approaches
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Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US). The results obtained were decomposed by means of an independent component analysis (ICA) targeting independent expression modes. We observed significant differences in the expression levels of 5,084 protein coding genes resulting in an overrepresentation of 14% of the human biological pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. These were mainly clustered on terms related with protein synthesis repression, altered immune system and infectious diseases related mechanisms. In a second analysis, 27 out of the 196 transcriptional regulators (TRs) included in the Open Regulatory Annotation database were overrepresented. Among these TRs, we identified transcription factors from the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) family EPAS1 (p< 0.01) and HIF1A (p<0.001), and others jointly described in the gluconeogenesis program such as HNF4 (p< 0.001), EGR1 (p<0.001), CEBPA (p< 0.001) and a highly specific TR, YY1 (p<0.01). The five independent components, obtained from ICA, further revealed a down-regulation of 10 genes distributed in the complex I, III and V from the electron transport chain. This mitochondrial activity reduction is compatible with HIF-1 system activation. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, known to be regulated by HIF, also emerged (p<0.05). Additionally, and related to the brain rewarding circuit, the endocannabinoid signalling pathway was overrepresented (p<0.05).
CitationMaqueda, M., Roca, E., Brotons, D., Soria, J., Perera, A. Affected pathways and transcriptional regulators in gene expression response to an ultra-marathon trail: Global and independent activity approaches. "PLoS one", 13 Octubre 2017, vol. 12, núm. 10, p. 1-26.