Application of the DPSIR framework to the evaluation of the recreational and environmental conditions on estuarine beaches of the Amazon coast
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The present study proposes a diagnosis of the conditions and impacts on estuarine beaches of the Amazonian coast based on the application of the DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses) model, which identifies the natural and anthropogenic drivers affecting the environment. Natural drivers are related primarily to the accentuated hydrodynamic processes, high rainfall and fluvial discharge. The anthropogenic driver is related to the lack of planning for beach development. These human pressures result in a reduction in the quality of the beaches through microbiological contamination, the accumulation of garbage on the sand and in the water, sewage outfalls, and overcrowding which, combined with the intense local hydrodynamics and the lack of planning of recreational activities (zoning, warning signs, lifeguard coverage) may increase the risk of accidents for beachgoers, such as drowning, and injuries caused by motorboats, jet skis and stingrays. Despite all the problems identified, no response whatsoever was observed from the local authorities. The results of the DPSIR analysis indicate an urgent need for the implementation of beach management plans to improve the conditions of the beaches and in particular their safety, as well as identifying the obligations of the local authorities responsible for the future development of the Amazon coast.
Citationde Sousa, R., Pereira, L.C.C., Trindade, W.N., da Costa, R.M., Jimenez, J.A. Application of the DPSIR framework to the evaluation of the recreational and environmental conditions on estuarine beaches of the Amazon coast. "Ocean and coastal management", Novembre 2017, vol. 149, p. 96-106.