A flexible hardware-in-the-loop architecture for UAVs
Document typeConference report
Rights accessOpen Access
European Commission's projectAEROARMS - AErial RObotic system integrating multiple ARMS and advanced manipulation capabilities for inspection and maintenance (EC-H2020-644271)
As robotic technology matures, fully autonomous robots become a realistic possibility, but demand very complex solutions to be rapidly engineered. In order to be able to quickly set up a working autonomous system, and to reduce the gap between simulated and real experiments, we propose a modular, upgradeable and flexible hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) architecture, which hybridizes the simulated and real settings. We take as use case the autonomous exploration of dense forests with UAVs, with the aim of creating useful maps for forest inspection, cataloging, or to compute other metrics such as total wood volume. As the first step in the development of the full system, in this paper we implement a fraction of this architecture, comprising assisted localization, and automatic methods for mapping, planning and motion execution. Specifically we are able to simulate the use of a 3D LIDAR endowed below an actual UAV autonomously navigating among simulated obstacles, thus the platform safety is not compromised. The full system is modular and takes profit of pieces either publicly available or easily programmed. We highlight the flexibility of the proposed HIL architecture to rapidly configure different experimental setups with a UAV in challenging terrain. Moreover, it can be extended to other robotic fields without further design. The HIL system uses the multi-platform ROS capabilities and only needs a motion capture system as external extra hardware, which is becoming standard equipment in all research labs dealing with mobile robots.
© 20xx IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
N. Koenig and A. Howard, " Design and use paradigms for gazebo,
an open-source multi-robot simulator, " in Intelligent Robots and Sys-
tems, 2004. (IROS 2004). Proceedings. 2004 IEEE/RSJ International
Conference on, vol. 3, Sept 2004, pp. 2149–2154 vol.3.
- D. Jung, J. Ratti, and P. Tsiotras, " Real-time implementation and
validation of a new hierarchical path planning scheme of uavs
via hardware-in-the-loop simulation, " in Unmanned Aircraft Systems,
K. Valavanis, P. Oh, and L. Piegl, Eds. Springer Netherlands, 2009,
E. Mueller, Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Design for Evaluation
of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Systems. American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007.
G. Cai, B. M. Chen, T. H. Lee, and M. Dong, " Design and imple-
mentation of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for small-scale
UAV helicopters, " Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1057–1066, Oct.
- Y. A. Prabowo, B. R. Trilaksono, and F. R. Triputra, " Hardware in-the-
loop simulation for visual servoing of fixed wing uav, " in Electrical
Engineering and Informatics (ICEEI), 2015 International Conference
on, Aug 2015, pp. 247–252.
Sufendi, B. R. Trilaksono, S. H. Nasution, and E. B. Purwanto,
" Design and implementation of hardware-in-the-loop-simulation for
uav using pid control method, " in Instrumentation, Communications,
Information Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME),
2013 3rd International Conference on, Nov 2013, pp. 124–130.
J. W. Grzywna, A. Jain, J. Plew, and M. C. Nechyba, " Rapid
development of vision-based control for mavs through a virtual flight
testbed, " in Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference
on Robotics and Automation, April 2005, pp. 3696–3702.
N. Gans, W. Dixon, R. Lind, and A. Kurdila, " A hardware in the
loop simulation platform for vision-based control of unmanned air
vehicles, " Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1043–1056, 2009.
M. Dissanayake, P. Newman, S. Clark, H. F. Durrant-Whyte, and
M. Csorba, " A solution to the simultaneous localization and map build-
ing (slam) problem, " Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on,
vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 229–241, 2001.
V. Ila, J. M. Porta, and J. Andrade-Cetto, " Information-based compact
pose slam, " Robotics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 78–93,
C. Roussillon, A. Gonzalez, J.Soì a, J.-M. Codol, N. Mansard,
S. Lacroix, and M. Devy, " Rt-slam: a generic and real-time visual
slam implementation, " in Computer Vision Systems. Springer, 2011,
A. Hornung, K. M. Wurm, M. Bennewitz, C. Stachniss, and W. Bur-
gard, " Octomap: An efficient probabilistic 3d mapping framework
based on octrees, " Autonomous Robots, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 189–206,
- R. Siegwart, I. R. Nourbakhsh, and D. Scaramuzza, Introduction to
autonomous mobile robots. MIT press, 2011.
- C. Dornhege and A. Kleiner, " A frontier-void-based approach for
autonomous exploration in 3d, " Advanced Robotics, vol. 27, no. 6,
pp. 459–468, 2013.
- K. Cesare, R. Skeele, S.-H. Yoo, Y. Zhang, and G. Hollinger, " Multi-
uav exploration with limited communication and battery, " in Robotics
and Automation (ICRA), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, May
2015, pp. 2230–2235.
C. Pravitra, G. Chowdhary, and E. Johnson, " A compact exploration
strategy for indoor flight vehicles, " in Decision and Control and Eu-
ropean Control Conference (CDC-ECC), 2011 50th IEEE Conference
on. IEEE, 2011, pp. 3572–3577.
B. Yamauchi, " A frontier-based approach for autonomous exploration, "
in Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 1997.
CIRA'97., Proceedings., 1997 IEEE International Symposium on.
IEEE, 1997, pp. 146–151.
A. A. A. Rizqi, A. I. Cahyadi, and T. B. Adji, " Path planning
and formation control via potential function for uav quadrotor, " in
Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Systems (ARIS), 2014 International
Conference on. IEEE, 2014, pp. 165–170.
D. M. Rivera, F. A. Prieto, and R. Ramírez, " Trajectory planning
for uavs in 3d environments using a moving band in potential
sigmoid fields, " in Robotics Symposium and Latin American Robotics
Symposium (SBR-LARS), 2012 Brazilian. IEEE, 2012, pp. 115–119.
- A. Akhtar, S. L. Waslander, and C. Nielsen, " Path following for a quadrotor using dynamic extension and transverse feedback lin- earization, " in Decision and Control (CDC), 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on. IEEE, 2012, pp. 3551–3556.