Adapting TDMA arbitration for measurement-based probabilistic timing analysis
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Critical Real-Time Embedded Systems require functional and timing validation to prove that they will perform their functionalities correctly and in time. For timing validation, a bound to the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) for each task is derived and passed as an input to the scheduling algorithm to ensure that tasks execute timely. Bounds to WCET can be derived with deterministic timing analysis (DTA) and probabilistic timing analysis (PTA), each of which relies upon certain predictability properties coming from the hardware/software platform beneath. In particular, specific hardware designs are needed for both DTA and PTA, which challenges their adoption by hardware vendors. This paper makes a step towards reconciling the hardware needs of DTA and PTA timing analyses to increase the likelihood of those hardware designs to be adopted by hardware vendors. In particular, we show how Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), which has been regarded as one of the main DTA-compliant arbitration policies, can be used in the context of PTA and, in particular, of the industrially-friendly Measurement-Based PTA (MBPTA). We show how the execution time measurements taken as input for MBPTA need to be padded to obtain reliable and tight WCET estimates on top of TDMA-arbitrated hardware resources with no further hardware support. Our results show that TDMA delivers tighter WCET estimates than MBPTA-friendly arbitration policies, whereas MBPTA-friendly policies provide higher average performance. Thus, the best policy to choose depends on the particular needs of the end user.
CitationPanic, M. [et al.]. Adapting TDMA arbitration for measurement-based probabilistic timing analysis. "Microprocessors and Microsystems", Juliol 2017, vol. 52, p. 188-201.