Recovery of nutrients (N-P-K) from potassium-rich sludge anaerobic digestion side-streams by integration of a hybrid sorption-membrane ultrafiltration process: Use of powder reactive sorbents as nutrient carriers
Rights accessOpen Access
Here, an alternative nutrient (N-P-K) recovery route from potassium-rich sludge anaerobic digestion side-streams using powder reactive sorbents (PRSs) is presented. In the first step, the optimum PRS system was determined in batch experiments with mixtures of: a) a sodium zeolite (NaP1) to facilitate the NH4+ and K+ sorption; b) a Ca-zeolite (CaP1) to facilitate the removal of P by formation of Ca-phosphates (e.g., CaHPO4(s)), and c) caustic magnesia containing mixtures of MgO to facilitate the formation of Mg/NH4/PO4 minerals (e.g., struvite and magnesium phosphates). Evaluation of the continuous and simultaneous N-P-K removal with mixtures of PRSs was carried out using a hybrid sorption/filtration system with ultrafiltration (UF) hollow-fibre membranes. The dosing ratios of the PRS mixtures were optimised on the basis of the equilibrium and kinetic sorption data, and a PRS dose (< 2–5 g PRS/L) was selected to ensure the hydraulic performance of the system. Under such conditions, and with synthetic anaerobic side-stream removal capacities (qt) of 220 ± 10 mg N-NH4/g, 35 ± 5 mg P-PO4/g, and 8 ± 2 mg K/g, removal efficiencies of 32 ± 3, 78 ± 5, and 26 ± 3% for ammonium, phosphate, and potassium, respectively, were obtained for the binary mixtures of NaP1/CaP1 zeolites. Contrary to the batch results, the use of tertiary mixtures of NaP1/CaP1/MgO only improved the K removal capacity and efficiency to 18 ± 2 mg K/g and 55 ± 4%, respectively, while the phosphate removal capacity and efficiency remained unchanged (ca. 35 ± 3 mg P-PO4/g; 80 ± 5%) and the ammonium capacity and efficiency were reduced to 185 ± 12 mg N-NH4/g and 20 ± 2%, respectively, due to the competing Mg2 + ion effect. Nutrient removal trials with real anaerobic side-streams using binary mixtures of Na/Ca zeolites showed a reduction of both the hydraulic performance and the nutrient removal ratios due to the presence of dissolved organic matter. However, constant removal ratios of N, P, and K were recorded throughout the filtration experiments. The loaded PRSs exhibited suitable nutrient release rates and bioavailability as co-substrates for soil quality improvement. Chemical analyses detected the formation of Ca/P/O and Mg/N/P/O neo-minerals; however, the mineralogical data revealed only the formation of struvite, even when no magnesium oxide was used.
CitationHermassi, M., Valderrama, C., Gibert, O., Moreno Palmerola, Natàlia, Querol , X., Harrouch, N., Cortina, J. Recovery of nutrients (N-P-K) from potassium-rich sludge anaerobic digestion side-streams by integration of a hybrid sorption-membrane ultrafiltration process: Use of powder reactive sorbents as nutrient carriers. "Science of the total environment", 5 Maig 2017, vol. 599-600, p. 422-430.
All rights reserved. This work is protected by the corresponding intellectual and industrial property rights. Without prejudice to any existing legal exemptions, reproduction, distribution, public communication or transformation of this work are prohibited without permission of the copyright holder