Impact of rain, swell, and surface currents on the electromagnetic bias in GNSS-Reflectometry
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The assessment of the electromagnetic (EM) bias is required to predict the performance of upcoming global navigation satellite systems-reflectometry (GNSS-R) altimetry systems, and its impact in data assimilation climate studies. In previous studies, the EM bias in bistatic GNSS-R altimetry (L-band) was numerically estimated for a wind-driven sea surface height spectrum, including the time-domain variability. In the present study, spectral models for the rain, swell, and surface currents are used to compute a perturbed wind-driven sea surface height spectrum, from which a perturbed three-dimensional (3-D) time-evolving wind-driven sea surface height is computed. The generated sea surface is then illuminated by a right hand circular polarization (RHCP) L-band EM wave, and the wave scattered from each facet is computed from each facet using the physical optics (PO) method under the Kirchhoff approximation (KA). Finally, the EM bias is computed numerically as the height of each patch times the forward-scattering coefficient, divided by the average of the forward-scattering coefficient. The impact of rain on the EM bias is a moderate decrease (in magnitude) due to the damping of the large gravity waves, which is more significant as the wind speed increases. The impact of swell is a small increase (in magnitude) mostly due to the change of the local incidence angles. The impact of currents can be either a moderate increase or decrease (in magnitude), depending on the sense of the current with respect to the wind, due to a change in the surface roughness.
CitationGhavidel, A., Camps, A. Impact of rain, swell, and surface currents on the electromagnetic bias in GNSS-Reflectometry. "IEEE journal of selected topics in applied earth observations and remote sensing", 1 Octubre 2016, vol. 9, núm. 10, p. 4643-4649.