Trace ions rejection tunning in NF by selecting solution composition: Ion permeances estimation
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Nanofiltration (NF) is suggested to selectively remove ionic species in aqueous process streams taking benefit of both membrane and aqueous solution composition. The importance of predicting and optimizing selective ion rejections by NF not only of major compounds (e.g. NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2, MgSO4) but also of minor ones such as ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), bromide (Br-), iodide (I-) typically present in natural and industrial process streams is crucial. The current work explores ion rejection patterns and membrane ion permeances using the phenomenological Solution-Electro-Diffusion-Film (SEDF) model. It makes possible rapid calculations that account for the effects of spontaneously arising electric fields on rejections. Experimental ion rejection data of several inorganic ions species at various transmembrane pressures and at fixed cross-flow velocity have been obtained with NF270 membrane. A number of trace ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Br-and I-) have been used in combination with various dominant salts (NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4) as model feed solutions. Results showed that dominant salts were moderately (NaCl) and highly (MgCl2, MgSO4) rejected when some ions are divalent, while trace ions exhibited quite variable rejection, including negative ones mainly at low transmembrane volume flows. The electric field of membrane potential can accelerate or retard the ion flows to the permeate, so negative or unexpectedly high rejections could be observed. Ions transport was shown to be affected by the membrane chemistry (e.g. acid-base properties of the un-crosslinked carboxylic and amine groups) and the dielectric exclusion phenomena. From the modelling procedure, ionic membrane permeances were determined for various multi-ion systems studied. Results showed that nature of dominant salt composition can be used to control the rejection of minor components.
CitationPagès, N., Reig, M., Gibert, O., Cortina, J. Trace ions rejection tunning in NF by selecting solution composition: Ion permeances estimation. "Chemical engineering journal", 15 Gener 2017, vol. 308, p. 126-134.