A confidence assessment of WCET estimates for software time randomized caches
Document typeConference report
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Rights accessOpen Access
Obtaining Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) estimates is a required step in real-time embedded systems during software verification. Measurement-Based Probabilistic Timing Analysis (MBPTA) aims at obtaining WCET estimates for industrial-size software running upon hardware platforms comprising high-performance features. MBPTA relies on the randomization of timing behavior (functional behavior is left unchanged) of hard-to-predict events like the location of objects in memory — and hence their associated cache behavior — that significantly impact software's WCET estimates. Software time-randomized caches (sTRc) have been recently proposed to enable MBPTA on top of Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) caches (e.g. modulo placement). However, some random events may challenge MBPTA reliability on top of sTRc. In this paper, for sTRc and programs with homogeneously accessed addresses, we determine whether the number of observations taken at analysis, as part of the normal MBPTA application process, captures the cache events significantly impacting execution time and WCET. If this is not the case, our techniques provide the user with the number of extra runs to perform to guarantee that cache events are captured for a reliable application of MBPTA. Our techniques are evaluated with synthetic benchmarks and an avionics application.
CitationBenedicte, P., Kosmidis, L., Quiñones, E., Abella, J., Cazorla, F. A confidence assessment of WCET estimates for software time randomized caches. A: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics. "2016 IEEE 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN): Palais des Congrès du Futuroscope, Futuroscope-Poitiers, France 19-21 July, 2016: proceedings". Futuroscope - Poitiers: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 90-97.