|dc.description.abstract||This project seeks, through a comprehensive literature research, to identify the
elements that allow to define and to assess the Security of the Containerized Supply
Chain. The main points developed in the project are:
· Introduction: The Security of the Containerized Supply Chain (C.S.C.)
· Literature review of Elements related with the Security and the Performance of
· Proposed and Implemented measures to improve the Security of the C.S.C.
· Analysis of the measures to improve the Security of the C.S.C.
· Conclusions and Recommendations
In the Introduction will be discussed the concept of containerized supply chain,
which is its definition, the reasons for its existence, its extent and importance in today's
society, what factors have led to the increasing importance of the C.S.C. in the
international transport system, among other aspects. All this information is intended to
help discern why the C.S.C. is an essential element in the global economy and why we
should analyze and try to improve its security.
Additionally, will be outlined how has been addressed the topic of the Security of the
C.S.C. to date by the different actors involved, making a clear distinction in the way of
acting before and after the attacks of September 11, 2001.
Certainly, the way that it is treated the issue of the Security of the C.S.C. in the
literature has changed radically from a literature that gave emphasis on managing the
security to prevent the “smuggling and shrinkage (the loss of cargo shipments through
theft and misrouting)” to a literature that emphasizes in “preventing terrorists from
targeting the C.S.C. or transporting a weapon in a shipping container”.
The Literature Review will begin with an extensive search of literature related to the
Security of the C.S.C. and its evaluation.
Then will be analyzed the literature identified, trying to collect those items that are
considered useful to define and assess the Security of the C.S.C.
In the process of analysis of the literature, have been directly identified 30 elements
that allow to define and to assess the Security of the C.S.C. at different levels and from
different points of view. The next step will be to analyze the collected items of literature, linking them
conceptually. From this linking will be intended generate a series of basic elements that
broadly define all aspects affecting the security and performance of the C.S.C.
Therefore, from the analysis of the definitions given by the authors for each of
these elements, it can be observed that although with sometimes quite different
denominations and with definitions a little different, many of the elements proposed
by the authors have big and obvious points in common.
Thus, conceptually linking the identified elements, they have been grouped into 14
basic concepts that have been referred as Global Elements in this project and that
define the security and performance of the C.S.C.
From that moment, it will work with these "basic elements” generated, classifying
conceptually and using them to analyze the measures proposed to improve the Security
of the C.S.C.
Thus, going deeper into the definition of the elements integrated into each of the
global elements, it has been generated a conceptual definition for each Global
From the process of generation of conceptual definition of the Global Elements, can
be concluded that exists a clear difference of nature between those Global Elements.
So, can be identified 3 major subgroups in which can be classified the 14 Global
· In this way, have been identified a group of Global Elements relating to all
those basic elements, tools and procedures that define the Security of the
C.S.C. This group of Global Elements, in this project, has been named as Tools.
· Another group of Global elements relating to the possible problems that may
affect in a negative way in the operation of the C.S.C. This group of Global
Elements has been named as Vulnerabilities.
· And finally, another group of Global Elements relating to all elements that
define the performance of the C.S.C. This group of elements has been named
In the Proposed and Implemented Measures will have a broad collection of
agreement and technological measures, implemented or under development to
improve the security of the C.S.C.
Thus, through the analysis of the specialized literature have been identified a large
number of proposals to improve the security of the C.S.C. Moreover, have been
detected two distinct levels in terms of these measures. So, there are those that have been referred to as Agreement Measures and those that have been referred to as
Within the Agreement Measures are included all efforts made regarding the
creation of national and international agreements, policies, performance standards,
rules and programs.
Thus, the Agreement Measures identified in the literature and analyzed are the
· Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA)
· Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)
· Container Security Initiative (CSI)
· Operation Safe Commerce (OSC)
· Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
· Megaports Initiative
· International Ship and Port Security (ISPS)
Within the Technological Measures are included all those technologies used or in
developing to improve and strengthen the security of the C.S.C. in the various levels of
the supply chain and in different focal areas.
Thus, the Technological Measures identified in the literature and analyzed are the
· Antitamper Seals Technologies
· Sensor Technologies
· Radio-Frequency Identification Technologies
· Non-Intrusive Inspections Technologies
· WMD Remote Monitoring Technologies
· Automated Targeting Technologies
· Authentication Technologies
In the section Analysis of the Measures will be analyzed the agreement and
technological measures collected regarding the "global elements" generated in the
Literature Review section.
To do this, in a first phase has been analyzed for each measure identified, which
basic elements of the Security of the C.S.C. are affected. These basic elements have
been identified in this project and have been denominated as the global elements
In a second phase, it has been analyzed for each measure identified how it affects at
the different elements of the Performance of the C.S.C. These elements have been identified in this project and have been denominated as the global elements
Finally, the study will be completed extracting the considered most relevant
Conclusions emerged in the development of this project.
So, are exposed the most relevant conclusions that can be extracted from the different
basic phases of this project:
· In the process of searching for the literature used as a basis of study and
analysis in this project.
· In the process of the analysis of the documents, collecting and linking the
identified elements that allow to define and to assess the Security of the C.S.C.
· In the process of collection and analysis of the proposed and implemented
Measures to improve the security of the C.S.C.
And additionally, in this section of the project will be intended to propose a set of
Recommendations of action addressed to specialized authors and to the stakeholders
directly involved in the topic of the Security of the C.S.C.