Articles de revista
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/3990
2022-05-26T22:00:29ZFSLAM: A QGIS plugin for fast regional susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced landslides
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/367604
FSLAM: A QGIS plugin for fast regional susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced landslides
Guo, Zizheng; Torra i Truncal, Ona; Hurlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Abanco Martínez de Arenzana, Claudia; Medina Iglesias, Vicente César de
Shallow slope failures triggered by rainfall commonly pose considerable risks in mountainous areas. In order to delineate areas where landslides are more prone to occur within a region, we have designed and developed a Python QGIS plugin named Fast Shallow Landslide Assessment Model (FSLAM). The plugin integrates a simplified hydrological model and a geotechnical model based on the infinite slope theory and contains two principal modules: runoff and slope stability modelling. It can output up to 15 raster maps describing the hydrological and stability conditions in a short computational time. Firstly, we explain the design of graphical user interface and the elements of the plugin. Then, the Berguedà area in NE Spain is used as case study to present the procedure of the plugin application. The results show that the accuracy of landslide susceptibility assessment performed by FSLAM-plugin is high and the computing time is only a few minutes.
2022-05-23T09:47:27ZGuo, ZizhengTorra i Truncal, OnaHurlimann Ziegler, MarcelAbanco Martínez de Arenzana, ClaudiaMedina Iglesias, Vicente César deShallow slope failures triggered by rainfall commonly pose considerable risks in mountainous areas. In order to delineate areas where landslides are more prone to occur within a region, we have designed and developed a Python QGIS plugin named Fast Shallow Landslide Assessment Model (FSLAM). The plugin integrates a simplified hydrological model and a geotechnical model based on the infinite slope theory and contains two principal modules: runoff and slope stability modelling. It can output up to 15 raster maps describing the hydrological and stability conditions in a short computational time. Firstly, we explain the design of graphical user interface and the elements of the plugin. Then, the Berguedà area in NE Spain is used as case study to present the procedure of the plugin application. The results show that the accuracy of landslide susceptibility assessment performed by FSLAM-plugin is high and the computing time is only a few minutes.A CFD-based surrogate model for predicting flow parameters in a ventilated room using sensor readings
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/367590
A CFD-based surrogate model for predicting flow parameters in a ventilated room using sensor readings
Morozova, Nina; Trias Miquel, Francesc Xavier; Capdevila Paramio, Roser; Schillaci, Eugenio; Oliva Llena, Asensio
In this work, we develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based surrogate model, which predicts flow parameters under different geometrical configurations and boundary conditions in a benchmark case of a mechanically ventilated room with mixed convection. The model inputs are the temperature and velocity values in different locations, which act as a surrogate of the sensor readings. The model’s output is a set of comfort-related flow parameters, such as the average Nusselt number on the hot wall, jet separation point, average kinetic energy, average enstrophy, and average temperature. We tested four different machine learning methods, among which we chose the gradient boosting regression due to its accurate performance. We also adapted the developed model for indoor environment control applications by determining the optimal combinations of sensor positions which minimize the prediction error. This model does not require the repetition of CFD simulations in order to be applied since the structure of the input data imitates sensor readings. Furthermore, the low computational cost of the model execution and good accuracy makes it an effective alternative to CFD for applications where rapid predictions of complex flow configurations are required, such as model predictive control.
2022-05-20T12:43:00ZMorozova, NinaTrias Miquel, Francesc XavierCapdevila Paramio, RoserSchillaci, EugenioOliva Llena, AsensioIn this work, we develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based surrogate model, which predicts flow parameters under different geometrical configurations and boundary conditions in a benchmark case of a mechanically ventilated room with mixed convection. The model inputs are the temperature and velocity values in different locations, which act as a surrogate of the sensor readings. The model’s output is a set of comfort-related flow parameters, such as the average Nusselt number on the hot wall, jet separation point, average kinetic energy, average enstrophy, and average temperature. We tested four different machine learning methods, among which we chose the gradient boosting regression due to its accurate performance. We also adapted the developed model for indoor environment control applications by determining the optimal combinations of sensor positions which minimize the prediction error. This model does not require the repetition of CFD simulations in order to be applied since the structure of the input data imitates sensor readings. Furthermore, the low computational cost of the model execution and good accuracy makes it an effective alternative to CFD for applications where rapid predictions of complex flow configurations are required, such as model predictive control.Coupled radiation and natural convection: Different approaches of the slw model for a non-gray gas mixture
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/367585
Coupled radiation and natural convection: Different approaches of the slw model for a non-gray gas mixture
Colomer Rey, Guillem; Consul Serracanta, Ricard; Oliva Llena, Asensio
The coupling between non-gray radiation heat transfer and convection–conduction heat transfer is studied. The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of the different approaches used when calculating the parameters of the SLW model. Such strategies include the use of optimized model coefficients to reduce the number of operations, and the interpolation of the distribution function instead of the use of mathematical correlations. Non-gray calculations are also compared to gray solutions using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, which can be also calculated with the SLW model. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by means of the discrete ordinates method (DOM). A natural convection driven cavity is chosen to couple radiation and conduction–convection energy transfer. Several cases, with a significant variation of the ratio between radiation to convection heat transfer, as well as the ratio between radiation to conduction heat transfer, are discussed.
2022-05-20T11:42:38ZColomer Rey, GuillemConsul Serracanta, RicardOliva Llena, AsensioThe coupling between non-gray radiation heat transfer and convection–conduction heat transfer is studied. The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of the different approaches used when calculating the parameters of the SLW model. Such strategies include the use of optimized model coefficients to reduce the number of operations, and the interpolation of the distribution function instead of the use of mathematical correlations. Non-gray calculations are also compared to gray solutions using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, which can be also calculated with the SLW model. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by means of the discrete ordinates method (DOM). A natural convection driven cavity is chosen to couple radiation and conduction–convection energy transfer. Several cases, with a significant variation of the ratio between radiation to convection heat transfer, as well as the ratio between radiation to conduction heat transfer, are discussed.On the implementation of flux limiters in algebraic frameworks
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/366917
On the implementation of flux limiters in algebraic frameworks
Valle Marchante, Nicolás; Álvarez Farré, Xavier; Gorobets, Andrei; Castro González, Jesús; Oliva Llena, Asensio; Trias Miquel, Francesc Xavier
The use of flux limiters is widespread within the scientific computing community to capture shock dis- continuities and are of paramount importance for the temporal integration of high-speed aerodynamics, multiphase flows and hyperbolic equations in general. Meanwhile, the breakthrough of new computing architectures and the hybridization of supercomputer systems pose a huge portability challenge, particularly for legacy codes, since the computing subroutines that form the algorithms, the so-called kernels, must be adapted to various complex parallel program- ming paradigms. From this perspective, the development of innovative implementations relying on a minimalist set of kernels simplifies the deployment of scientific computing software on state-of-the-art supercomputers, while it requires the reformulation of algorithms, such as the aforementioned flux lim- iters. Equipped with basic algebraic topology and graph theory underlying the classical mesh concept, a new flux limiter formulation is presented based on the adoption of algebraic data structures and kernels. As a result, traditional flux limiters are cast into a stream of only two types of computing kernels: sparse matrix-vector multiplication and generalized pointwise binary operators. The newly proposed formulation eases the deployment of such a numerical technique in massively parallel, potentially hybrid, computing systems and is demonstrated for a canonical advection problem.
2022-05-06T06:54:44ZValle Marchante, NicolásÁlvarez Farré, XavierGorobets, AndreiCastro González, JesúsOliva Llena, AsensioTrias Miquel, Francesc XavierThe use of flux limiters is widespread within the scientific computing community to capture shock dis- continuities and are of paramount importance for the temporal integration of high-speed aerodynamics, multiphase flows and hyperbolic equations in general. Meanwhile, the breakthrough of new computing architectures and the hybridization of supercomputer systems pose a huge portability challenge, particularly for legacy codes, since the computing subroutines that form the algorithms, the so-called kernels, must be adapted to various complex parallel program- ming paradigms. From this perspective, the development of innovative implementations relying on a minimalist set of kernels simplifies the deployment of scientific computing software on state-of-the-art supercomputers, while it requires the reformulation of algorithms, such as the aforementioned flux lim- iters. Equipped with basic algebraic topology and graph theory underlying the classical mesh concept, a new flux limiter formulation is presented based on the adoption of algebraic data structures and kernels. As a result, traditional flux limiters are cast into a stream of only two types of computing kernels: sparse matrix-vector multiplication and generalized pointwise binary operators. The newly proposed formulation eases the deployment of such a numerical technique in massively parallel, potentially hybrid, computing systems and is demonstrated for a canonical advection problem.A new general method to compute dispersion errors on Cartesian stretched meshes for both linear and non-linear operators
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/366824
A new general method to compute dispersion errors on Cartesian stretched meshes for both linear and non-linear operators
Ruano Pérez, Jesús; Baez Vidal, Aleix; Rigola Serrano, Joaquim; Trias Miquel, Francesc Xavier
The present article presents a new analysis for the dispersion error and the methodology to evaluate it numerically. Here we present the spectral properties of several convective schemes, including non-linear ones, on Cartesian stretched grids for linear advection problems. Results obtained with this method when applied to uniform structured meshes, converge to the results obtained with the classical method for all the studied schemes. Additionally, effects on the time step depending on which scheme is used are considered using the proposed method. The extracted conclusions taken into account both errors and computational cost allow to propose an optimal scheme according to the selected meshing strategy.
2022-05-04T15:07:54ZRuano Pérez, JesúsBaez Vidal, AleixRigola Serrano, JoaquimTrias Miquel, Francesc XavierThe present article presents a new analysis for the dispersion error and the methodology to evaluate it numerically. Here we present the spectral properties of several convective schemes, including non-linear ones, on Cartesian stretched grids for linear advection problems. Results obtained with this method when applied to uniform structured meshes, converge to the results obtained with the classical method for all the studied schemes. Additionally, effects on the time step depending on which scheme is used are considered using the proposed method. The extracted conclusions taken into account both errors and computational cost allow to propose an optimal scheme according to the selected meshing strategy.Energy and exergy analysis of an absorption system with working pairs LiBr-H2O and Carrol-H2O at applications of cooling and heating
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/366602
Energy and exergy analysis of an absorption system with working pairs LiBr-H2O and Carrol-H2O at applications of cooling and heating
Zheng, Jian; Castro González, Jesús; Oliva Llena, Asensio; Oliet Casasayas, Carles
In this work, an air-cooled, single effect solar-driven absorption system is being evaluated from the point of view of 1 and 2 thermodynamic principles for two different applications: absorption chiller and heat pump. One of the most widely used working pairs, LiBr-HO, is applied in this study due to its high performance in the absorption cycle. Their performance is compared with another working pair Carrol-HO (Carrol contains LiBr and EG -Ethylene glycol- with a mass ratio of 4.5:1). The Carrol solution has the advantage of reducing the crystallization risk at the high concentration solution that enters the absorber. The numerical modelling was implemented on a modular object-oriented simulation platform (NEST platform tool), which allows linking different components, considered objects. In the simulations performed, the heat source temperature in the system is in the range of 70–90 C, and the inlet temperature at evaporator secondary circuit at chiller application is fixed in two values, 9C and 14C, and for heat pump application in 0C and -5C. Moreover, EG is added to the evaporator at heat pump application to prevent the refrigerant water from freezing below zero. The studied mass concentration range of EG of 10–40%. The result shows the of an absorption chiller and heat pump are around 0.7 and 1.6, respectively, and the values are 0.2-0.6 at chiller application and 0.5-1.5 at heat pump application. When compared with LiBr system, Carrol system has about 6.4% higher , about 6.3% higher , and a decrease of about 19% of cooling capacity. In the heat pump application, the heat source temperature should be lower than 90C, and EG concentration at evaporator has been chosen as 30% as an optimal value. According to the operation condition, this EG concentration has been determined to avoid freezing in the evaporator in the studied working range. However, too much EG significantly decreases the pressure in the evaporator and increases the viscosity, hence will increase the maintenance of equipment as more vacuum tightness is required.
2022-04-29T12:47:02ZZheng, JianCastro González, JesúsOliva Llena, AsensioOliet Casasayas, CarlesIn this work, an air-cooled, single effect solar-driven absorption system is being evaluated from the point of view of 1 and 2 thermodynamic principles for two different applications: absorption chiller and heat pump. One of the most widely used working pairs, LiBr-HO, is applied in this study due to its high performance in the absorption cycle. Their performance is compared with another working pair Carrol-HO (Carrol contains LiBr and EG -Ethylene glycol- with a mass ratio of 4.5:1). The Carrol solution has the advantage of reducing the crystallization risk at the high concentration solution that enters the absorber. The numerical modelling was implemented on a modular object-oriented simulation platform (NEST platform tool), which allows linking different components, considered objects. In the simulations performed, the heat source temperature in the system is in the range of 70–90 C, and the inlet temperature at evaporator secondary circuit at chiller application is fixed in two values, 9C and 14C, and for heat pump application in 0C and -5C. Moreover, EG is added to the evaporator at heat pump application to prevent the refrigerant water from freezing below zero. The studied mass concentration range of EG of 10–40%. The result shows the of an absorption chiller and heat pump are around 0.7 and 1.6, respectively, and the values are 0.2-0.6 at chiller application and 0.5-1.5 at heat pump application. When compared with LiBr system, Carrol system has about 6.4% higher , about 6.3% higher , and a decrease of about 19% of cooling capacity. In the heat pump application, the heat source temperature should be lower than 90C, and EG concentration at evaporator has been chosen as 30% as an optimal value. According to the operation condition, this EG concentration has been determined to avoid freezing in the evaporator in the studied working range. However, too much EG significantly decreases the pressure in the evaporator and increases the viscosity, hence will increase the maintenance of equipment as more vacuum tightness is required.First test field performance of highly efficient flat plate solar collectors with transparent insulation and low-cost overheating protection
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/366595
First test field performance of highly efficient flat plate solar collectors with transparent insulation and low-cost overheating protection
Kizildag, Deniz; Castro González, Jesús; Kessentini, Hamdi; Schillaci, Eugenio; Rigola Serrano, Joaquim
The present work demonstrates prototypes of highly efficient flat plate solar thermal collectors prototypes based on transparent insulation materials (TIM) technology for efficiency improvement and an overheating protection system. The design and optimization of the collectors have been numerically carried out using a previously developed simulation tool based on an in-house software platform (NEST) capable of simulating all the entities constituting the system as a whole and using efficient coupling between the elements. Three design variants for the demonstration have been previously tested under laboratory conditions. These collectors are then mounted on the roof of a hospital building. Their performance is comparatively tested along with a conventional flat plate solar collector, under actual meteorological conditions and during long periods. The energy collected is about 2.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard collectors in winter and spring. Thus, due to the long-term exposure of the collectors, aspects such as reliability, durability, energy performance, and correct functioning of the protection system have been analyzed to improve the detected shortcomings for the future generations of the present design.
2022-04-29T11:49:50ZKizildag, DenizCastro González, JesúsKessentini, HamdiSchillaci, EugenioRigola Serrano, JoaquimThe present work demonstrates prototypes of highly efficient flat plate solar thermal collectors prototypes based on transparent insulation materials (TIM) technology for efficiency improvement and an overheating protection system. The design and optimization of the collectors have been numerically carried out using a previously developed simulation tool based on an in-house software platform (NEST) capable of simulating all the entities constituting the system as a whole and using efficient coupling between the elements. Three design variants for the demonstration have been previously tested under laboratory conditions. These collectors are then mounted on the roof of a hospital building. Their performance is comparatively tested along with a conventional flat plate solar collector, under actual meteorological conditions and during long periods. The energy collected is about 2.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard collectors in winter and spring. Thus, due to the long-term exposure of the collectors, aspects such as reliability, durability, energy performance, and correct functioning of the protection system have been analyzed to improve the detected shortcomings for the future generations of the present design.Intercomparison of Radon Flux Monitors at Low and at High Radium Content Areas under Field Conditions
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/366231
Intercomparison of Radon Flux Monitors at Low and at High Radium Content Areas under Field Conditions
Rábago, Daniel; Quindós, Luis; Vargas Drechsler, Arturo; Sainz, Carlos; Radulescu, Ileana; Razvan Ioan, Mihail; Cardellini, Francesco; Capogni, Marco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Celaya, Santiago; Fuente, Ismael; Fuente, Marta; Grossi, Claudia; Rodríguez, Maria
Interlaboratory exercises are a good tool to compare the response of different systems to the same quantity and to identify possible inconsistencies between them. One of the main goals of the EMPIR 19ENV01 traceRadon project is to harmonize radon flux measurements based on different systems and methodologies. In the framework of the traceRadon Project, two radon flux intercomparison campaigns were carried out in October 2021 at high and at low radon source areas. Four institutions participated in the field intercomparison exercises with their own systems. Every system was based on a specific radon monitor (diffusion or pump mode) and an accumulation chamber (with manual or automatic opening). Radon fluxes were calculated by each participant using both exponential and linear fittings of the radon activity concentration measured over time within the accumulation chambers. The results of this study show mainly: (i) the exponential approach is not advisable due to the variability of the radon flux and the leakage of the systems during long-time measurements; (ii) the linear approach should be applied to minimize the measurement period in agreement with the time response and sensitivity of the monitors; (iii) radon flux measured at high radon source areas (radium content of about 800 Bq kg-1) risks being underestimated because of the influence of advective effects; (iv) radon flux measured at low radon source areas (radium content of about 30 Bq kg-1) may present large uncertainties if sensitive radon monitors with pump mode are not used.
2022-04-22T10:28:11ZRábago, DanielQuindós, LuisVargas Drechsler, ArturoSainz, CarlosRadulescu, IleanaRazvan Ioan, MihailCardellini, FrancescoCapogni, MarcoRizzo, AlessandroCelaya, SantiagoFuente, IsmaelFuente, MartaGrossi, ClaudiaRodríguez, MariaInterlaboratory exercises are a good tool to compare the response of different systems to the same quantity and to identify possible inconsistencies between them. One of the main goals of the EMPIR 19ENV01 traceRadon project is to harmonize radon flux measurements based on different systems and methodologies. In the framework of the traceRadon Project, two radon flux intercomparison campaigns were carried out in October 2021 at high and at low radon source areas. Four institutions participated in the field intercomparison exercises with their own systems. Every system was based on a specific radon monitor (diffusion or pump mode) and an accumulation chamber (with manual or automatic opening). Radon fluxes were calculated by each participant using both exponential and linear fittings of the radon activity concentration measured over time within the accumulation chambers. The results of this study show mainly: (i) the exponential approach is not advisable due to the variability of the radon flux and the leakage of the systems during long-time measurements; (ii) the linear approach should be applied to minimize the measurement period in agreement with the time response and sensitivity of the monitors; (iii) radon flux measured at high radon source areas (radium content of about 800 Bq kg-1) risks being underestimated because of the influence of advective effects; (iv) radon flux measured at low radon source areas (radium content of about 30 Bq kg-1) may present large uncertainties if sensitive radon monitors with pump mode are not used.Exergetic model of a small-scale, biomass-based CCHP/HP system for historic building structures
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/365747
Exergetic model of a small-scale, biomass-based CCHP/HP system for historic building structures
Wegener, Moritz; Isalgué Buxeda, Antonio; Malmquist, Anders; Martin, Andrew; Santarelli, Massimo; Arranz Piera, Pol; Camara Moreno, Osar
Biomass-based, small-scale Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) systems can increase the energy autonomy of building complexes while reducing their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions. In combination with air-to-water Heat Pumps (HP), highly efficient energy systems can be designed, which allow for high flexibility in serving thermal and electric demands. This study presents an exergy evaluation of such a small-scale CCHP/HP system using a dynamic modelling approach based on gasification of various types of woody biomass. The transient model takes into account the effects of the biomass chemical composition as well as of ambient temperatures on the exergy performance of all key components for various CCHP system sizes supporting an HP system. The model has been applied in a case study for a historic building complex, where the CCHP sub-system would support an HP-subsystem allowing for downsizing the latter. The results show that smaller CCHP systems operate with higher exergy efficiency, because for larger systems the heat transfer from the engine and the operation of the absorption chiller are less exergy efficient. The electric load-following CCHP subsystem reaches exergy efficiencies of up to 13.3%, indicating huge improvement potential for system and sub-system design. It was also found that the biomass composition heavily influences the exergy efficiency of the gasifier and in turn changes the exergy efficiency of the syngas engine and the entire CCHP sub-system.
2022-04-12T10:36:10ZWegener, MoritzIsalgué Buxeda, AntonioMalmquist, AndersMartin, AndrewSantarelli, MassimoArranz Piera, PolCamara Moreno, OsarBiomass-based, small-scale Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) systems can increase the energy autonomy of building complexes while reducing their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions. In combination with air-to-water Heat Pumps (HP), highly efficient energy systems can be designed, which allow for high flexibility in serving thermal and electric demands. This study presents an exergy evaluation of such a small-scale CCHP/HP system using a dynamic modelling approach based on gasification of various types of woody biomass. The transient model takes into account the effects of the biomass chemical composition as well as of ambient temperatures on the exergy performance of all key components for various CCHP system sizes supporting an HP system. The model has been applied in a case study for a historic building complex, where the CCHP sub-system would support an HP-subsystem allowing for downsizing the latter. The results show that smaller CCHP systems operate with higher exergy efficiency, because for larger systems the heat transfer from the engine and the operation of the absorption chiller are less exergy efficient. The electric load-following CCHP subsystem reaches exergy efficiencies of up to 13.3%, indicating huge improvement potential for system and sub-system design. It was also found that the biomass composition heavily influences the exergy efficiency of the gasifier and in turn changes the exergy efficiency of the syngas engine and the entire CCHP sub-system.Electro-responsive shape-memory composites obtained via dual-curing processing
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/365457
Electro-responsive shape-memory composites obtained via dual-curing processing
Russo, Claudio; Ramirez Falo, José Luis; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Flor López, Sílvia de la
In this work, electro-responsive shape-memory actuators were developed by incorporating a conductive heater in a dual-curing thiol-acrylate-epoxy shape-memory polymer (SMP). A conductive heater, consisting of an electrically conductive silverink track printed on Kapton® substrate, was assembled to the SMP, taking advantage of the dual-curing processing. The shape-memory effect (SME) was activated by the heat dissipated by the Joule effect in the conductive track. Boron nitride agglomerates were dispersed in the thiol-acrylate-epoxy layers to increase thermal conductivity and achieve faster shape-recovery. A thermoelectric control unit was developed to control the shape recovery of the electro-responsive actuators and provide different activation strategies. The electrically activated SME was investigated and compared to a traditional SME based on an external heating source given by the dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) apparatus. Electro-responsive actuators were found extremely faster than the conventional SMPs based on external heating. The fastest recovery was obtained by the 15% boron nitride actuator, which recovered the 100% of the original shape in only 8 s. The thermoelectric controlling device provided an optimal control of the shape recovery speed based on the pulse width modulation of the heating current under the application of a low voltage (5 V).
2022-04-06T15:38:14ZRusso, ClaudioRamirez Falo, José LuisFernández Francos, XavierFlor López, Sílvia de laIn this work, electro-responsive shape-memory actuators were developed by incorporating a conductive heater in a dual-curing thiol-acrylate-epoxy shape-memory polymer (SMP). A conductive heater, consisting of an electrically conductive silverink track printed on Kapton® substrate, was assembled to the SMP, taking advantage of the dual-curing processing. The shape-memory effect (SME) was activated by the heat dissipated by the Joule effect in the conductive track. Boron nitride agglomerates were dispersed in the thiol-acrylate-epoxy layers to increase thermal conductivity and achieve faster shape-recovery. A thermoelectric control unit was developed to control the shape recovery of the electro-responsive actuators and provide different activation strategies. The electrically activated SME was investigated and compared to a traditional SME based on an external heating source given by the dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) apparatus. Electro-responsive actuators were found extremely faster than the conventional SMPs based on external heating. The fastest recovery was obtained by the 15% boron nitride actuator, which recovered the 100% of the original shape in only 8 s. The thermoelectric controlling device provided an optimal control of the shape recovery speed based on the pulse width modulation of the heating current under the application of a low voltage (5 V).