The hazardous effects of air pollution have been shown to be detrimental to human and environmental health. In response, the European Union have implemented legislation which dictates maximum allowable limits of air pollutants such as Particulate Matter (PM) Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) and Tropospheric Ozone (O3). To meet these limits European cities have implemented a wide range of measures ranging from incentivising alternatives to private vehicle use to restrictive measures such as pollution taxes and low emission zones.
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