Amping up, saving power
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Fourth-generation (4G) communication systems based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and the proposed backwards compatible fifth-generation (5G) variants, like filter-bank multicarrier (FBMC), are based on modulation techniques that allow significantly increased spectral efficiency and capacity in mobile radio access networks (RANs). However, the use of these modulation techniques impacts the requirements of the radio base stations, which have been traditionally the most energy-consuming element of mobile networks, accounting for up to 80% of the energy consumption of RANs . Non-constant envelope-modulation techniques with high peak-to-average power ratios (PAPRs) require highly linear power amplifier (PA) amplitude and phase responses to fulfill stringent spectral mask and modulation accuracy requirements. This is often achieved with significant PA back-off, which considerably reduces PA efficiency because the PA's maximum efficiency is achieved near the saturation point.
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CitacióLópez, D., Wang, T., Gilabert, Pere L., Montoro, G. Amping up, saving power. "IEEE microwave magazine", 01 Gener 2016, vol. 17, núm. 1, p. 79-87.