Model predictive energy control of ventilation for underground stations
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Smart building systems are opening up new markets, nevertheless the implementation of these novel technologies still lacks suitable and proven whole engineering solutions in complex buildings. This paper presents a detailed approach for the ventilation control of an underground space, as an example of application of the developed solution to a very harsh environment but also highly demanding in terms of energy consumption. The underground spaces are characterized by a particular thermal behavior, because of the continuous and huge thermal exchange they have with the outside, via the openings and the ground surrounding the majority of the building. The main objective of the developed methodology is to reduce energy consumption of ventilation control while maintaining acceptable comfort levels: succeeding in achieving this twofold goal in a real station and the generalization of the approach are the most relevant contributions of the paper. The developed solution is based on a Model-based Predictive Control algorithm used together with a proper monitoring platform. The model predictive control is based on a Bayesian environmental prediction model, which works in cooperation with a weather forecast web service, schedule-based predictions about trains and external fans and an occupancy detection system to appraise the real amount of people. The prediction model develops scenarios useful to allow the controller acting in advance in order to adapt the system to the current and future conditions of use, taking profit of the knowledge of the real ventilation demand. Finally, the proposed control architecture is applied to the Passeig de Gràcia metro station in Barcelona as a case study, validating the usefulness of the proposed approach and obtaining more than 30% of energy savings in the ventilation system, while maintaining the pre-existing comfort levels. The saving percentage values estimated by simulation are confirmed by the direct measures continuously taken on site through energy-meters.
CitationVaccarini, M., Giretti, A., Tolve, L., Casals, M. Model predictive energy control of ventilation for underground stations. "Energy and buildings", 15 Març 2016, vol. 116, p. 326-340.
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