A characterization of isochronous centres in terms of symmetries
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We present a description of isochronous centres of planar vector fields $X$ by means of their groups of symmetries. More precisely, given a normalizer $U$ of $X$ (i.e., $[X,U]=\mu X$, where $\mu$ is a scalar function), we provide a necessary and sufficient isochronicity condition based on $\mu$. This criterion extends the result of Sabatini and Villarini that establishes the equivalence between isochronicity and the existence of commutators ($[X,U]= 0$). We put also special emphasis on the mechanical aspects of isochronicity; this point of view forces a deeper insight into the potential and quadratic-like Hamiltonian systems. For these families we provide new ways to find isochronous centres, alternative to those already known from the literature.