Register constrained modulo scheduling
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Software pipelining is an instruction scheduling technique that exploits the instruction level parallelism (ILP) available in loops by overlapping operations from various successive loop iterations. The main drawback of aggressive software pipelining techniques is their high register requirements. If the requirements exceed the number of registers available in the target architecture, some steps need to be applied to reduce the register pressure (incurring some performance degradation): reduce iteration overlapping or spilling some lifetimes to memory. In the first part, we propose a set of heuristics to improve the spilling process and to better decide between adding spill code or directly decreasing the execution rate of iterations. The experimental evaluation, over a large number of representative loops and for a processor configuration, reports an increase in performance by a factor of 1.29 and a reduction of memory traffic by a factor of 1.36. In the second part, we analyze the use of backtracking and propose a novel approach for simultaneous instruction scheduling and register spilling in modulo scheduling: MIPS (modulo scheduling with integrated register spilling). The experimental evaluation reports an increase in performance by a factor of 1.46 and a reduction of the memory traffic by a factor of 1.66 (or an additional 1.13 and 1.22 with regard to the proposal in the first part). These improvements are achieved at the expense of a reasonable increase in the compilation time.
CitationZalamea, F., Llosa, J., Ayguade, E., Valero, M. Register constrained modulo scheduling. "IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems", Maig 2004, vol. 15, núm. 5, p. 417-430.
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