Time synchronization is a critical part of distributed applications over a sensor network. In this work we investigate time
synchronization problems over UWSN deployed in shallow water, taking into account all main communication challenges of the water
channel and observing its behavior in simulation and real tests. A hybrid frame was proposed based on time synchronization using
both LFM and OFDM communication with channel impulse response equalization. Simulation results show how Hybrid synchronization
outperforms existing synchronization protocols and how these results are affected in real underwater tests.
CitacióPallares, O., Bouvet, P., Del Rio, J. Hybrid time synchronization for Underwater Sensor Networks. "ACTA IMEKO", 30 Setembre 2015, vol. 4, núm. 3, p. 30-35.