Indigo is one of the most consumed dyes in the textile sector, as it is widely used for the dyeing of denim clothes. About 15% of indigo used in the dyeing process is discharged to the wastewater treatment plants or sometimes into rivers, in countries where regulations are not strictly applied. In this work, real effluents that contained indigo dye were treated by means of 4 different ultrafiltration membranes. The feasibility to recover the concentrated dye with lab and semi-industrial pilots was also investigated. The studied membranes achieved up to 99% colour removal and 80% chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease. Finally, the concentrates containing 20 g L_1 of indigo dye were reused in new dyeing processes. Colour differences (DECMC) and rubbing and washing fastnesses were evaluated. Fabrics dyed with the recovered indigo concentrates exhibited similar characteristics than the ones obtained with the commercial dye
CitacióBuscio, V.; Crespi, M.; Gutierrez, M. Sustainable dyeing of denim using indigo dye recovered with polyvinylidene difluoride ultrafiltration membranes. "Journal of cleaner production", 15 Març 2015, vol. 91, p. 201-207.