Comparative analysis of available life cycle inventories of cement in the EU
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Life cycle inventories are a prerequisite of life cycle assessments. This paper conducts a comparative analysis of inventories of several different types of cement produced in Europe. It considers the production of 1 kg of cement from cradle to gate and all results are based on this mass unit. The reliability of cement inventories is affected by inaccurate or non-representative data, and comparative analysis is difficult due to varying system boundary definitions. Only the four main emissions (CO2, NOx, SO2 and dust) are considered. The theoretical model used gives reasonable estimates of emission levels and thus can serve as a reference to measured values. In the case of CO2, this is definitely a feasible alternative to in situ measurements. The emissions derive primarily from the production of clinker, both from the chemical reactions occurring in the kiln and by its fossil fuel consumption.
CitationJosa, A.; Aguado, A.; Heino, A.; Byars, E.; Cardim, A. Comparative analysis of available life cycle inventories of cement in the EU. Cement and concrete research, 2004, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1313-1320.