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To meet the ever-increasing traffic demands, future cellular networks are about to include a plethora of small cells (SCs), with user equipments (UEs) being able of communicating via multiple bands. Given that SCs are expected to be eventually as close as 50 m apart, some of them will not have a direct connection to the core network, and thus will forward their traffic to the neighboring SCs until they reach it. In such architectures, the user association problem becomes challenging with backhaul (BH) energy consumption playing a key role. Thus, in this paper, we study the user association problem aiming at maximizing the network energy efficiency. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem, which is NP-hard. Therefore, we propose a cognitive heuristic algorithm that exploits context-aware information (i.e., UE measurements and requirements, the HetNet architecture knowledge and the available spectrum resources of each base station (BS)) to associate the UEs in an energy-efficient way, while considering both the access and the BH energy consumption. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm under two study-case scenarios and we prove that it achieves significantly higher energy efficiency than the reference algorithms, while maintaining high spectral efficiency.
CitacióMesodiakaki, A. [et al.]. Energy-efficient context-aware user association for outdoor small cell heterogeneous networks. A: IEEE International Conference on Communications. "2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) ; took place 10 - 14 June 2014 in Sydney, Australia ; ICC 2014". Sydney: 2014, p. 1614-1619.
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