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This paper presents two Proportional-Derivative (PD) like controllers for nonlinear bilateral teleoperation systems. Compared to previous controllers of this kind, these schemes do not make use of velocity measurements. Under the assumptions that the human operator and the environment define passive maps from velocity to force, both controllers can ensure boundedness of velocities and position error. Moreover, in the case that the human and environment forces are zero, the controllers ensure velocity and position synchronization. Furthermore, the paper also presents a generalization to the case of teleoperation of networks of multiple robots. Simulations and real experiments, comparing the performance on free motion and interacting with a stiff wall, support the performance of the reported schemes. The experiments have been performed using two 3-degree-of-freedom nonlinear manipulators.
CitationNuño, E. [et al.]. Stability of nonlinear teleoperators using PD controllers without velocity measurements. "Journal of the Franklin Institute", Gener 2014, vol. 351, núm. 1, p. 241-258.
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