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This paper focuses on the use of virtual ﬁxtures to improve the learning of basic skills for laparoscopic surgery. Five virtual ﬁxtures are deﬁned, integrated into a virtual surgical simulator and used to deﬁne an experimental setup based on a trajectory following task. 46 subjects among surgeons and residents underwent a training session
based on the proposed setup. Their performance has been logged and used to identify the eﬀect of virtual ﬁxtures on the learning curve from the point of view of accuracy and completion time. Virtual ﬁxtures prove to be eﬀective in improving the learning and aﬀect diﬀerently accuracy and completion time. This suggests the possibility to tailor virtual ﬁxtures on the speciﬁc task requirements.
CitationHernansanz, A. [et al.]. Improving the development of surgical skills with virtual fixtures in simulation. A: International Conference on Information Processing in Computer-Assisted Interventions. "Information Processing in Computer Assisted Interventions: Third International Conference, IPCAI 2012, Pisa, Italy, June 27, 2012: proceedings". Pisa: Springer, 2012, p. 157-166.
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