Rear surface of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells is based on a combination of dielectric passivation and point-like contacts. In this work, we develop a 3D model for these devices based on 2.2 Ωcm p-type crystalline silicon substrates. We validate the model by comparison with experimental results allowing us to determine an optimum design for the rear pattern. Additionally, the 3D model results are compared with the ones deduced from a simpler and widely used 1D model. Although the maximum efficiency predicted by both models is approximately the same, large deviations are observed in open-circuit voltage and fill factor. 1D simulations overestimate open-circuit voltage because Dember and electrochemical potential drops are not taken into account. On the contrary, fill factor is underestimated because of higher ohmic losses along the base when 1D analytical model is used. These deviations are larger for relatively low-doped substrates, as the ones used in the experimental samples reported hereby, and poor passivated contacts. As a result, 1D models could mislead to too short optimum rear contact spacing.
CitationLopez, J. [et al.]. Numerical simulations of rear point-contacted solar cells pn 2.2 Wcm p-type c-Si substrates. "Progress in photovoltaics", Juliol 2013, vol. 2013.
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