The Kyoto protocol, signed by 160 countries, pledges greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of at least 5% relative to 1990 levels . Besides the global concern and action to mitigate GHG emissions, national-level policies are increasingly being supplemented with city-scale actions to
mitigate climate change . Marshall  makes us notice that although much attention on mitigating climate change has focused
on alternative fuels, energy consumption in vehicles, and electricity generation, better urban design represents an important yet undervalued opportunity. The built environment is responsible for huge amounts of pollution and waste generation  at millions of different locations worldwide. And one of the major construction materials is concrete.
CitationOliver-Solà, J. [et al.]. LCM in urban planning for diminishing GHG: case study on concrete sidewalks. A: International Conference on Life Cycle Management. "4th International Conference on Life Cycle Management (LCM 2009)". Cape Town: 2009.
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