This paper presents a comprehensive study of microwave nonlinearities in superconductors, with an emphasis on intermodulation distortion and third-harmonic generation. It contains the analysis of various resonant and nonresonant test devices and its validation using numerical simulations based on harmonic balance (HB). The HB simulations made on test devices show that the closed-form equations for intermodulation and third-harmonic generation are only valid at low power levels. The paper also contains examples of application of HB to illustrate that this technique is useful to simulate superconductive devices other than simple test devices, and that the validity of the simulations is not restricted to low drive power levels. Most of the analyses and simulations of this paper are based on electrical parameters that describe the nonlinearities in the superconducting material. These parameters are compatible with many existing models of microwave nonlinearities in superconductors. We discuss the particulars on how to relate these electrical parameters with one of the existing models that postulates that the nonlinear effects are due to a dependence of the penetration depth on the current density in the superconductor.
CitationCollado, C.; Mateu, J.; O'Callaghan, J.M. Analysis and simulation of the effects of distributed nonlinearities in microwave superconducting devices. IEEE Transactions on applied superconductivity, 2005, vol. 15, núm. 1, p. 26-39.
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