Freeze concentration of whey in a falling-film based pilot plant: process and characterization
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Falling-film freeze concentration is a technique for concentration of liquids by freezing the available water in the form of a layer of ice on a refrigerated surface. Processing at low temperatures keeps the organoleptic properties of the initial product. In this study the freeze concentration of whey was investigated as an technological alternative for the use of this byproduct of the dairy industry. Freeze concentration tests were carried out in pilot-scale equipment and the increase in soluble solids content of the whey and the amount and purity of the ice formed were analysed. Electrical conductivity, viscosity and freezing point of the concentrated whey were determined. The concentrate obtained had a solid concentration of up to 21.8 ºBrix. The ice formed in the last stage of the freeze-concentration process had a lactose content of 11.3 g/L and protein content of 3.45%. The electrical conductivity of the ice formed increased exponentially to a value of 29.40 mS/cm. Freeze-concentrated whey of 10, 15, and 20 ºBrix behaves as a Newtonian fluid in the temperature range of -4 ºC – 4 ºC.
CitationSanchez, J. [et al.]. Freeze concentration of whey in a falling-film based pilot plant: process and characterization. "Journal of food engineering", Octubre 2010, p. 1-9.